Negative rheumatoid factor polyarthritis is one of the forms of juvenile arthritis affecting children ages 16 and younger. More specifically, negative rheumatoid factor polyarthritis represents around 15-20% of cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The onset of the disease can start at any age and symptoms usually manifest as soreness in the joints hindering or halting physical movement, for example difficulties walking or writing. Children may also feel generally unwell and develop a fever when their joints are affected, although not as high daily temperature seen in systemic arthritis. Most children with polyarthritis are rheumatoid factor negative (RF-negative).
Prevalence has been estimated at between 1 and 13 in 22,200 children, with an annual incidence of 1-26 in 700,000 children. Females are affected more often than males.