Amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 is a specific type of amelogenesis imperfecta. Amelogenesis imperfecta is group of disorders involving abnormal formation of enamel, or the tissue that covers the tooth. In amelogenesis imperfecta type 4, the tooth enamel is thinner than usual and causes the teeth to have a discolored appearance, since there is no cover. As a result, the teeth may appear to be brown instead of white. Additional symptoms include tooth loss, increased risk of gum, cement and ligament disease near the teeth, teeth sensitivity to heat and cold, and potential psychological problems due to insecurities about the appearance of teeth.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 is a genetic condition caused by a change in the DLX3 gene. This condition is passed down from parent to child in an autosomal dominant manner. This means only one mutation from one parent is inherited in order to cause symptoms. A person with this condition has a 50/50 chance of passing the condition on to their children.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 is characterized by having smaller teeth that may range anywhere from being brown to white. The teeth are also usually spotted, and the enamel is thinner in areas of the teeth that are less dense. Doctors can diagnose amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 by taking an x-ray of the teeth during infancy. By the age of one or two years old, amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 can be diagnosed just by looking at the teeth. The condition can be diagnosed both in baby and adult teeth.
Treatment for amelogenesis imperfecta type 4 usually includes putting crowns on the teeth and the use of dentures to cover defective teeth. Special toothpaste can be used that prevents extreme sensitivity to hot and cold, and it is important to have good oral hygiene. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta type 4, talk with your doctor about the most current treatment options.
Description Last Updated: Feb 25, 2018