HIV

Common Name(s)

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a viral infection of the immune system. Acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS) is the umbrella term used to describe the final stage of an HIV infection. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but HIV can also be transmitted by contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. Early symptoms of an HIV infection include fever, rash, night sweats, headaches, sore throat, fatigue, and a general feeling of having the flu, but many individuals who are HIV positive do not have any symptoms. This is because the virus has a latency stage, also known as the chronic phase. The virus can lay dormant inside your cells for years. HIV is a human retrovirus. The term retrovirus means that the virus can replicate inside a human cell. The retrovirus is an RNA virus; it converts itself into DNA and inserts itself into the cell’s genome. Once it is part of the cell’s genetic code, the virus is then produced by the cell’s replication machinery. Once enough of the virus has been produced within the cell, the cell dies and releases the virus into the body. HIV attacks the cells of your immune system, specifically the CD4 cells. CD4 cells include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus decreases the number CD4 cells in the body, therefore diminishing the body’s ability to fight infection. Once your number of CD4 cells has fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood, you will be diagnosed with AIDS. There is no cure for an HIV infection or AIDS. There are treatments that can suppress the HIV virus and help to slow the progression of the disease.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

http://www.thewellproject.org/

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "HIV" returned 30147 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effect of optional home initiation of HIV care following HIV self-testing on antiretroviral therapy initiation among adults in Malawi: a randomized clinical trial.
 

Author(s): Peter MacPherson, David G Lalloo, Emily L Webb, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Augustine T Choko, Simon D Makombe, Anthony E Butterworth, Joep J van Oosterhout, Nicola Desmond, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Bertel Squire, Richard J Hayes, Elizabeth L Corbett

Journal: JAMA. ;312(4):372-9.

 

Self-testing for HIV infection may contribute to early diagnosis of HIV, but without necessarily increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2014

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Assessment of second-line antiretroviral regimens for HIV therapy in Africa.
 

Author(s): Nicholas I Paton, Cissy Kityo, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Reid, Andrew Kambugu, Abbas Lugemwa, Joep J van Oosterhout, Mary Kiconco, Abraham Siika, Raymond Mwebaze, Mary Abwola, George Abongomera, Aggrey Mweemba, Hillary Alima, Dickens Atwongyeire, Rose Nyirenda, Justine Boles, Jennifer Thompson, Dinah Tumukunde, Ennie Chidziva, Ivan Mambule, Jose R Arribas, Philippa J Easterbrook, James Hakim, A Sarah Walker, Peter Mugyenyi,

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2014 Jul;371(3):234-47.

 

The efficacy and toxic effects of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are uncertain when these agents are used with a protease inhibitor in second-line therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in resource-limited settings. Removing the NRTIs or replacing ...

Last Updated: 12 Jul 2014

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The importance of sCD40 and sCD40L concentration in patients with chronic HCV infection and HIV co-infection.
 

Author(s): Tadeusz Wojciech Lapiński, Joanna Pogorzelska, Anna Grzeszczuk, Magdalena Swiderska, Oksana Kowalczuk, Jacek Nikliński, Robert Flisiak

Journal: Przegl Epidemiol. 2014 ;68(1):11-5, 105-8.

 

CD40 receptor is activated by ligand CD40L (CD154) which is synthesized in inflammation by NK cells, monocytes and lymphocytes B. TRAF proteins are activated in cells by CD40 stimulation and next they stimulate different enzymatic pathways. High concentrations of CD40L stimulate CD40, ...

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "HIV" returned 2890 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[Impact of HIV/AIDS on quality of life: meta-analysis 2002-2012].
 

Author(s): Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Luis Felipe Higuita-Gutiérrez

Journal: Rev. Esp. Salud Publica. ;88(1):87-101.

 

HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection that transcends the biological domain and affects social relations, mental health, financial aspects and quality of life. The objective of the study was to assess the perception of Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL)) in people with HIV / AIDS.

Last Updated: 14 Apr 2014

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Metabolic and body composition effects of newer antiretrovirals in HIV-infected patients.
 

Author(s): Suman Srinivasa, Steven K Grinspoon

Journal:

 

In the absence of a cure, HIV-infected patients are being successfully treated with antiretroviral therapies (ART) and living longer. Indeed, an increasing number of HIV-infected patients are living beyond the age of 50 years, and in that regard, the use of ART has transformed HIV ...

Last Updated: 11 Apr 2014

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[Facilitators and barriers to HIV testing: a literature review].
 

Author(s): Alejandra X Araya, Paulina Bravo, Paola Carrasco, M Teresa Urrutia, Paula Vega, Miriam Rubio, M Jesús Lira

Journal: Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Dec;30(6):638-43.

 

Late diagnosis of HIV is a problem of international and national relevance. Despite the availability of HIV testing in primary health care, it is often performed too late.

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Study of People With HIV Infection Who Have High Viral Loads Despite Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus; AIDS Virus; Human Immunodeficiency Virus; Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

 

Last Updated: 23 Aug 2014

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Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV; Lung; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2009

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Last Updated: 25 Jan 2010

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