HIV

Common Name(s)

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a viral infection of the immune system. Acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS) is the umbrella term used to describe the final stage of an HIV infection. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but HIV can also be transmitted by contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. Early symptoms of an HIV infection include fever, rash, night sweats, headaches, sore throat, fatigue, and a general feeling of having the flu, but many individuals who are HIV positive do not have any symptoms. This is because the virus has a latency stage, also known as the chronic phase. The virus can lay dormant inside your cells for years. HIV is a human retrovirus. The term retrovirus means that the virus can replicate inside a human cell. The retrovirus is an RNA virus; it converts itself into DNA and inserts itself into the cell’s genome. Once it is part of the cell’s genetic code, the virus is then produced by the cell’s replication machinery. Once enough of the virus has been produced within the cell, the cell dies and releases the virus into the body. HIV attacks the cells of your immune system, specifically the CD4 cells. CD4 cells include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus decreases the number CD4 cells in the body, therefore diminishing the body’s ability to fight infection. Once your number of CD4 cells has fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood, you will be diagnosed with AIDS. There is no cure for an HIV infection or AIDS. There are treatments that can suppress the HIV virus and help to slow the progression of the disease.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

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The STD Project

Established in April of 2012 during STD Awareness Month, The STD Project is a multi-award-winning independent website and progressive movement eradicating STD stigma by facilitating and encouraging awareness, education, and acceptance through story-telling and resource recommendations. We are taking steps toward modern-day sexual health and prevention by advocating for conscientious and informed decisions.

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2016

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
The STD Project

Established in April of 2012 during STD Awareness Month, The STD Project is a multi-award-winning independent website and progressive movement eradicating STD stigma by facilitating and encouraging awareness, education, and acceptance through story-telling and resource recommendations. We are taking steps toward modern-day sexual health and prevention by advocating for conscientious and informed decisions.

http://www.thestdproject.com/

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2016

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

http://www.thewellproject.org/

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "HIV" returned 41361 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Tailored Immunogens Direct Affinity Maturation toward HIV Neutralizing Antibodies.
 

Author(s): Bryan Briney, Devin Sok, Joseph G Jardine, Daniel W Kulp, Patrick Skog, Sergey Menis, Ronald Jacak, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Natalia de Val, Fabian Sesterhenn, Khoa M Le, Alejandra Ramos, Meaghan Jones, Karen L Saye-Francisco, Tanya R Blane, Skye Spencer, Erik Georgeson, Xiaozhen Hu, Gabriel Ozorowski, Yumiko Adachi, Michael Kubitz, Anita Sarkar, Ian A Wilson, Andrew B Ward, David Nemazee, Dennis R Burton, William R Schief

Journal: Cell. 2016 Sep;166(6):1459-1470.e11.

 

Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a primary goal of HIV vaccine development. VRC01-class bnAbs are important vaccine leads because their precursor B cells targeted by an engineered priming immunogen are relatively common among humans. This priming immunogen has ...

Last Updated: 10 Sep 2016

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HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in Indiana, 2014-2015.
 

Author(s): Philip J Peters, Pamela Pontones, Karen W Hoover, Monita R Patel, Romeo R Galang, Jessica Shields, Sara J Blosser, Michael W Spiller, Brittany Combs, William M Switzer, Caitlin Conrad, Jessica Gentry, Yury Khudyakov, Dorothy Waterhouse, S Michele Owen, Erika Chapman, Jeremy C Roseberry, Veronica McCants, Paul J Weidle, Dita Broz, Taraz Samandari, Jonathan Mermin, Jennifer Walthall, John T Brooks, Joan M Duwve,

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Jul;375(3):229-39.

 

In January 2015, a total of 11 new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were reported in a small community in Indiana. We investigated the extent and cause of the outbreak and implemented control measures.

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2016

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Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission.
 

Author(s): Myron S Cohen, Ying Q Chen, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James G Hakim, Johnstone Kumwenda, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jose H S Pilotto, Sheela V Godbole, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Breno R Santos, Kenneth H Mayer, Irving F Hoffman, Susan H Eshleman, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Leslie Cottle, Xinyi C Zhang, Joseph Makhema, Lisa A Mills, Ravindre Panchia, Sharlaa Faesen, Joseph Eron, Joel Gallant, Diane Havlir, Susan Swindells, Vanessa Elharrar, David Burns, Taha E Taha, Karin Nielsen-Saines, David D Celentano, Max Essex, Sarah E Hudelson, Andrew D Redd, Thomas R Fleming,

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Sep;375(9):830-9.

 

An interim analysis of data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented more than 96% of genetically linked infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. ART was then offered ...

Last Updated: 1 Sep 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "HIV" returned 3931 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
 

Author(s): Frederick L Altice, Lyuba Azbel, Jack Stone, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Pavlo Smyrnov, Sergii Dvoriak, Faye S Taxman, Nabila El-Bassel, Natasha K Martin, Robert Booth, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Peter Vickerman

Journal: Lancet. 2016 Sep;388(10050):1228-48.

 

Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled ...

Last Updated: 21 Sep 2016

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Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B coinfection in Ghana: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso

Journal:

 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality and may impact significantly on healthcare resource utilization. However, in Ghana, accurate estimates of the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection needed ...

Last Updated: 18 May 2016

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Integrated therapy for HIV and tuberculosis.
 

Author(s): Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph

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Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility ...

Last Updated: 16 May 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Last Updated: 24 Oct 2016

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Metabolomics Fingerprinting and Metabolic Dynamics After HIV Infection
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV

 

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2016

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Impact of HIV Self-testing Among Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV Infection

 

Last Updated: 1 Aug 2016

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