HIV

Common Name(s)

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a viral infection of the immune system. Acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS) is the umbrella term used to describe the final stage of an HIV infection. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but HIV can also be transmitted by contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. Early symptoms of an HIV infection include fever, rash, night sweats, headaches, sore throat, fatigue, and a general feeling of having the flu, but many individuals who are HIV positive do not have any symptoms. This is because the virus has a latency stage, also known as the chronic phase. The virus can lay dormant inside your cells for years. HIV is a human retrovirus. The term retrovirus means that the virus can replicate inside a human cell. The retrovirus is an RNA virus; it converts itself into DNA and inserts itself into the cell’s genome. Once it is part of the cell’s genetic code, the virus is then produced by the cell’s replication machinery. Once enough of the virus has been produced within the cell, the cell dies and releases the virus into the body. HIV attacks the cells of your immune system, specifically the CD4 cells. CD4 cells include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus decreases the number CD4 cells in the body, therefore diminishing the body’s ability to fight infection. Once your number of CD4 cells has fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood, you will be diagnosed with AIDS. There is no cure for an HIV infection or AIDS. There are treatments that can suppress the HIV virus and help to slow the progression of the disease.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

http://www.thewellproject.org/

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "HIV" returned 39217 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Primary Care--A New Era in HIV Prevention.
 

Author(s): Andrew E Petroll, Rose A Staden, Ryan P Westergaard

Journal: WMJ. 2016 Feb;115(1):6-8.

 

Last Updated: 8 Apr 2016

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HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody precursor B cells revealed by germline-targeting immunogen.
 

Author(s): Joseph G Jardine, Daniel W Kulp, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Anita Sarkar, Bryan Briney, Devin Sok, Fabian Sesterhenn, June Ereño-Orbea, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Isaiah Deresa, Xiaozhen Hu, Skye Spencer, Meaghan Jones, Erik Georgeson, Yumiko Adachi, Michael Kubitz, Allan C deCamp, Jean-Philippe Julien, Ian A Wilson, Dennis R Burton, Shane Crotty, William R Schief

Journal: Science. 2016 Mar;351(6280):1458-63.

 

Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. Germline-targeting immunogens aim to initiate bnAb induction by activating bnAb germline precursor B cells. Critical unmet challenges are to determine whether bnAb precursor naïve B cells bind germline-targeting ...

Last Updated: 25 Mar 2016

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Is hand-grip another culprit for the risk of fractures in HIV-positive patients?
 

Author(s): Maria Concetta Postorino, Carlo Torti, Ilaria Carè, Vincenzo Pisani, Alessio Strazzulla, Vittoria Vaccaro, Chiara Costa, Francesco Provenzano, Maria Mazzitelli, Arturo Pujia, Tiziana Montalcini

Journal: New Microbiol.. 2016 Jan;39(1):61-4.

 

Risk of bone fractures in patients with HIV infection is greater than in the general population, particularly in those co-infected with hepatitis viruses. We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and muscular strength, measured by hand grip test (HG), in HIV mono-infected and co-infected ...

Last Updated: 29 Feb 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "HIV" returned 3792 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Alcohol and HIV Effects on the Immune System.
 

Author(s): Gregory J Bagby, Angela M Amedee, Robert W Siggins, Patricia E Molina, Steve Nelson, Ronald S Veazey

Journal: Alcohol Res. 2015 ;37(2):287-97.

 

HIV disease and alcohol independently influence the human immune system, so it stands to reason that, together, their influence may be additive. Here, we review the evidence that alcohol can exacerbate HIV's influence on the immune system, thereby affecting disease progression and ...

Last Updated: 23 Dec 2015

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[Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons].
 

Author(s): Zofia Marchewka, Aleksandra Szymczak, Brygida Knysz

Journal:

 

Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of ...

Last Updated: 16 Dec 2015

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.
 

Author(s): Monisha Sharma, Roger Ying, Gillian Tarr, Ruanne Barnabas

Journal: Nature. 2015 Dec;528(7580):S77-85.

 

HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside ...

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Efficiency of the Hepatitis B Sci-B-Vac Vaccine in HIV Positive Patients
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV

 

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2011

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Last Updated: 23 Nov 2015

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Reversing Tissue Fibrosis to Improve Immune Reconstitution in HIV
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV Infection; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 1 Jun 2015

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