HIV

Common Name(s)

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a viral infection of the immune system. Acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS) is the umbrella term used to describe the final stage of an HIV infection. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but HIV can also be transmitted by contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. Early symptoms of an HIV infection include fever, rash, night sweats, headaches, sore throat, fatigue, and a general feeling of having the flu, but many individuals who are HIV positive do not have any symptoms. This is because the virus has a latency stage, also known as the chronic phase. The virus can lay dormant inside your cells for years. HIV is a human retrovirus. The term retrovirus means that the virus can replicate inside a human cell. The retrovirus is an RNA virus; it converts itself into DNA and inserts itself into the cell’s genome. Once it is part of the cell’s genetic code, the virus is then produced by the cell’s replication machinery. Once enough of the virus has been produced within the cell, the cell dies and releases the virus into the body. HIV attacks the cells of your immune system, specifically the CD4 cells. CD4 cells include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus decreases the number CD4 cells in the body, therefore diminishing the body’s ability to fight infection. Once your number of CD4 cells has fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood, you will be diagnosed with AIDS. There is no cure for an HIV infection or AIDS. There are treatments that can suppress the HIV virus and help to slow the progression of the disease.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

http://www.thewellproject.org/

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "HIV" returned 38812 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Development of 5' LTR DNA methylation of latent HIV-1 provirus in cell line models and in long-term-infected individuals.
 

Author(s): Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Jana Blažková, Ladislav Machala, David Jilich, Jan Weber, Dana Kučerová, Ondřej Vencálek, Ivan Hirsch, Jiří Hejnar

Journal:

 

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) latency represents the major barrier to virus eradication in infected individuals because cells harboring latent HIV-1 provirus are not affected by current antiretroviral therapy (ART). We previously demonstrated that DNA methylation of ...

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2016

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Pain Symptoms Associated with Opioid Use among Vulnerable Persons with HIV: An exploratory study with implications for palliative care and opioid abuse prevention.
 

Author(s): Amy R Knowlton, Trang Q Nguyen, Allysha C Robinson, Paul T Harrell, Mary M Mitchell

Journal: J Palliat Care. 2015 ;31(4):228-33.

 

Current or former injection drug users with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at high risk for pain, which adversely affects their quality of life and may increase their risk for illicit drug use or relapse. We explored associations between pain symptoms and substance use among ...

Last Updated: 9 Feb 2016

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Antiretroviral Therapy in Early HIV Infection.
 

Author(s): Jens Lundgren, Abdel G Babiker, James D Neaton

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Jan;374(4):394.

 

Last Updated: 28 Jan 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "HIV" returned 3754 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Alcohol and HIV Effects on the Immune System.
 

Author(s): Gregory J Bagby, Angela M Amedee, Robert W Siggins, Patricia E Molina, Steve Nelson, Ronald S Veazey

Journal: Alcohol Res. 2015 ;37(2):287-97.

 

HIV disease and alcohol independently influence the human immune system, so it stands to reason that, together, their influence may be additive. Here, we review the evidence that alcohol can exacerbate HIV's influence on the immune system, thereby affecting disease progression and ...

Last Updated: 23 Dec 2015

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of community and facility-based HIV testing to address linkage to care gaps in sub-Saharan Africa.
 

Author(s): Monisha Sharma, Roger Ying, Gillian Tarr, Ruanne Barnabas

Journal: Nature. 2015 Dec;528(7580):S77-85.

 

HIV testing and counselling is the first crucial step for linkage to HIV treatment and prevention. However, despite high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa, testing coverage is low, particularly among young adults and men. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (testing outside ...

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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A systematic review of filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA).
 

Author(s): Jared Jagdeo, Derek Ho, Alex Lo, Alastair Carruthers

Journal: J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.. 2015 Dec;73(6):1040-54.e14.

 

HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is characterized by facial volume loss. HIV FLA affects the facial contours of the cheeks, temples, and orbits, and is associated with social stigma. Although new highly active antiretroviral therapy medications are associated with less severe FLA, the ...

Last Updated: 16 Nov 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Efficiency of the Hepatitis B Sci-B-Vac Vaccine in HIV Positive Patients
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV

 

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2011

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Last Updated: 23 Nov 2015

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Reversing Tissue Fibrosis to Improve Immune Reconstitution in HIV
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV Infection; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 1 Jun 2015

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