HIV

Common Name(s)

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a viral infection of the immune system. Acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS) is the umbrella term used to describe the final stage of an HIV infection. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but HIV can also be transmitted by contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. Early symptoms of an HIV infection include fever, rash, night sweats, headaches, sore throat, fatigue, and a general feeling of having the flu, but many individuals who are HIV positive do not have any symptoms. This is because the virus has a latency stage, also known as the chronic phase. The virus can lay dormant inside your cells for years. HIV is a human retrovirus. The term retrovirus means that the virus can replicate inside a human cell. The retrovirus is an RNA virus; it converts itself into DNA and inserts itself into the cell’s genome. Once it is part of the cell’s genetic code, the virus is then produced by the cell’s replication machinery. Once enough of the virus has been produced within the cell, the cell dies and releases the virus into the body. HIV attacks the cells of your immune system, specifically the CD4 cells. CD4 cells include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus decreases the number CD4 cells in the body, therefore diminishing the body’s ability to fight infection. Once your number of CD4 cells has fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood, you will be diagnosed with AIDS. There is no cure for an HIV infection or AIDS. There are treatments that can suppress the HIV virus and help to slow the progression of the disease.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

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The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "HIV" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
The Well Project

The Well Project is a non-profit organization whose mission is to change the course of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a unique and comprehensive focus on women and girls. The Well Project advocates that every woman and girl should have access to quality, up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS.

http://www.thewellproject.org/

Last Updated: 20 May 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "HIV" returned 32228 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: still a hot topic?
 

Author(s): Itzchak Levy

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2015 Jan;17(1):52-3.

 

Last Updated: 5 Mar 2015

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Viremic relapse after HIV-1 remission in a perinatally infected child.
 

Author(s): Katherine Luzuriaga, Hannah Gay, Carrie Ziemniak, Keri B Sanborn, Mohan Somasundaran, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, John W Mellors, Daniel Rosenbloom, Deborah Persaud

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2015 Feb;372(8):786-8.

 

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2015

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HIV testing and service delivery among Blacks or African Americans--61 health department jurisdictions, United States, 2013.
 

Author(s): Puja Seth, Tanja Walker, NaTasha Hollis, Argelia Figueroa, Lisa Belcher,

Journal: MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.. 2015 Feb;64(4):87-90.

 

In the United States, approximately 1.2 million persons are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 14.0% have not received a diagnosis. Some groups are disproportionately affected by HIV, such as persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans ...

Last Updated: 6 Feb 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "HIV" returned 3127 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).
 

Author(s): Daniel Elbirt, Keren Mahlab-Guri, Shira Bezalel-Rosenberg, Harpreet Gill, Malka Attali, Ilan Asher

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2015 Jan;17(1):54-9.

 

Neurocognitive impairment still occurs in the era of HAART, though its onset appears to be delayed and its severity reduced, while HIV-infected individuals live longer with the infection. HAND defines three categories of disorders according to standardized measures of dysfunction: ...

Last Updated: 5 Mar 2015

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Health systems integration of sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping study.
 

Author(s): Rebecca Hope, Tamil Kendall, Ana Langer, Till Bärnighausen

Journal: J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014 Dec;67 Suppl 4():S259-70.

 

Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration ...

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Eliminating preventable HIV-related maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: what do we need to know?
 

Author(s): Tamil Kendall, Isabella Danel, Diane Cooper, Sophie Dilmitis, Angela Kaida, Athena P Kourtis, Ana Langer, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Eva Lathrop, Allisyn C Moran, Hannah Sebitloane, Janet M Turan, D Heather Watts, Mary Nell Wegner

Journal: J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014 Dec;67 Suppl 4():S250-8.

 

HIV makes a significant contribution to maternal mortality, and women living in sub-Saharan Africa are most affected. International commitments to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and reduce HIV-related deaths among pregnant and postpartum women by 50% will not be achieved ...

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Reversing Tissue Fibrosis to Improve Immune Reconstitution in HIV
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV Infection; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 5 Sep 2014

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Last Updated: 4 Mar 2015

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Preparing for Adolescent HIV Vaccine Trials in South Africa:
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: HIV Infection; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2009

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