Infertility

Common Name(s)

Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant, despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year (or six months under certain circumstances). Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman not being able to carry a pregnancy to full term (resulting in miscarriage). About 10-15% of couples are infertile in the United States. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner or a combination of factors. About one third of the time the cause of infertility only involves the male. About one third of the time, the cause of infertility only involves the female. In the remaining one third of the time, the cause involves both male and female or no cause can be found. The causes of male infertility include abnormal sperm production or function, problems with the delivery of sperm, overexposure to certain environmental factors, or damage related to cancer. Causes of female infertility include ovulation disorders, uterine or cervical abnormalities, fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, thyroid problems, cancer treatment, or other conditions or medications. Risk factors for male and female infertility include advanced age (for women over 35, for men over 40), tobacco use, alcohol use, being overweight or underweight, not enough exercise, or too much strenuous, intense exercise (particularly for women). Diagnosis is made through a number of different tests. Testing and trial treatments may extend over several months. The good news is that there are many safe and effective therapies for overcoming infertility. And due to research, treatment options continue to improve the chances a couple will become pregnant. Talk with your obstetrician or midwife if you are having trouble becoming pregnant. He or she will most likely suggest you see an infertility specialist possibly at an infertility center. Support organizations are also good resources for support and information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

http://www.facingourrisk.org

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

http://www.resolve.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Infertility" returned 1428 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Infertility: A Gene Expression Study in Decidual Stromal Cells.
 

Author(s): Cecilia B Chighizola, Francesca Pregnolato, Elena Raschi, Claudia Grossi, Davide Gentilini, Maria O Borghi, Pojen Chen, Pier L Meroni

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. ;18(3-4):146-9.

 

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been advocated as potential mediators of unexplained female infertility, but no evidence has yet been raised to support such an association.

Last Updated: 27 May 2016

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Birth Outcomes by Infertility Diagnosis Analyses of the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (MOSART).
 

Author(s): Barbara Luke, Judy E Stern, Milton Kotelchuck, Eugene R Declercq, Bruce Cohen, Hafsatou Diop

Journal: J Reprod Med. ;60(11-12):480-90.

 

To evaluate assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancy outcomes by infertility diagnosis.

Last Updated: 18 Jan 2016

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Relationship between risk factors for infertility in women and lead, cadmium, and arsenic blood levels: a cross-sectional study from Taiwan.
 

Author(s): Hsiao-Ling Lei, Hsiao-Jui Wei, Hsin-Yi Ho, Kai-Wei Liao, Ling-Chu Chien

Journal:

 

The World Health Organization reported that more than 10 % of women are severely affected by infertility, making the condition a major worldwide public health problem. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are environmental pollutants that may contribute to reproductive disorders. ...

Last Updated: 15 Dec 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Infertility" returned 301 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Experimental methods to preserve male fertility and treat male factor infertility.
 

Author(s): Kathrin Gassei, Kyle E Orwig

Journal: Fertil. Steril.. 2016 Feb;105(2):256-66.

 

Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families, and society, which extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are available ...

Last Updated: 5 Feb 2016

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[Novel aspects of human infertility: the role of the male factor].
 

Author(s): Anna Havrylyuk, Valentina Chopyak, Andrij Nakonechnyyj, Maciej Kurpisz

Journal:

 

In the article new aspects of the 'male factor' and its role in early stages of pregnancy are described. Among others, genetic and immunogenetic (KIR/KAR, HLA) factors are underlined as well as immunological ones (e.g. microchimerism). A significant part of this review is dedicated ...

Last Updated: 13 Nov 2015

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Genetics of male infertility: from research to clinic.
 

Author(s): Csilla Krausz, Antoni Riera Escamilla, Chiara Chianese

Journal: Reproduction. 2015 Nov;150(5):R159-74.

 

Male infertility is a multifactorial complex disease with highly heterogeneous phenotypic representation and in at least 15% of cases, this condition is related to known genetic disorders, including both chromosomal and single-gene alterations. In about 40% of primary testicular failure, ...

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Preovulatory Uterine Flushing With Saline as a Treatment for Unexplained Infertility
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Unexplained Infertility; Infertility

 

Last Updated: 31 Aug 2015

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Proposed Research Protocol For Male Infertility
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Male Infertility

 

Last Updated: 6 Dec 2010

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Uterine Transplant in Absolute Uterine Infertility (AUIF)
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Female Infertility

 

Last Updated: 27 Apr 2016

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