Infertility

Common Name(s)

Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant, despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year (or six months under certain circumstances). Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman not being able to carry a pregnancy to full term (resulting in miscarriage). About 10-15% of couples are infertile in the United States. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner or a combination of factors. About one third of the time the cause of infertility only involves the male. About one third of the time, the cause of infertility only involves the female. In the remaining one third of the time, the cause involves both male and female or no cause can be found. The causes of male infertility include abnormal sperm production or function, problems with the delivery of sperm, overexposure to certain environmental factors, or damage related to cancer. Causes of female infertility include ovulation disorders, uterine or cervical abnormalities, fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, thyroid problems, cancer treatment, or other conditions or medications. Risk factors for male and female infertility include advanced age (for women over 35, for men over 40), tobacco use, alcohol use, being overweight or underweight, not enough exercise, or too much strenuous, intense exercise (particularly for women). Diagnosis is made through a number of different tests. Testing and trial treatments may extend over several months. The good news is that there are many safe and effective therapies for overcoming infertility. And due to research, treatment options continue to improve the chances a couple will become pregnant. Talk with your obstetrician or midwife if you are having trouble becoming pregnant. He or she will most likely suggest you see an infertility specialist possibly at an infertility center. Support organizations are also good resources for support and information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

http://www.facingourrisk.org

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

http://www.resolve.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Infertility" returned 1475 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Fresh versus Frozen Embryos for Infertility in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
 

Author(s): Zi-Jiang Chen, Yuhua Shi, Yun Sun, Bo Zhang, Xiaoyan Liang, Yunxia Cao, Jing Yang, Jiayin Liu, Daimin Wei, Ning Weng, Lifeng Tian, Cuifang Hao, Dongzi Yang, Feng Zhou, Juanzi Shi, Yongle Xu, Jing Li, Junhao Yan, Yingying Qin, Han Zhao, Heping Zhang, Richard S Legro

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Aug;375(6):523-33.

 

The transfer of fresh embryos is generally preferred over the transfer of frozen embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF), but some evidence suggests that frozen-embryo transfer may improve the live-birth rate and lower the rates of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pregnancy ...

Last Updated: 11 Aug 2016

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Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Infertility: A Gene Expression Study in Decidual Stromal Cells.
 

Author(s): Cecilia B Chighizola, Francesca Pregnolato, Elena Raschi, Claudia Grossi, Davide Gentilini, Maria O Borghi, Pojen Chen, Pier L Meroni

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. ;18(3-4):146-9.

 

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been advocated as potential mediators of unexplained female infertility, but no evidence has yet been raised to support such an association.

Last Updated: 27 May 2016

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Association of infertility and fertility treatment with mammographic density in a large screening-based cohort of women: a cross-sectional study.
 

Author(s): Frida E Lundberg, Anna L V Johansson, Kenny Rodriguez-Wallberg, Judith S Brand, Kamila Czene, Per Hall, Anastasia N Iliadou

Journal:

 

Ovarian stimulation drugs, in particular hormonal agents used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) required to perform in vitro fertilization, increase estrogen and progesterone levels and have therefore been suspected to influence breast cancer risk. This study aims to investigate ...

Last Updated: 13 Apr 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Infertility" returned 309 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Is caffeine intake a risk factor leading to infertility? A protocol of an epidemiological systematic review of controlled clinical studies.
 

Author(s): Huijuan Cao, Jun Ren, Xue Feng, Guoyan Yang, Jianping Liu

Journal:

 

Previous studies showed that high dose of caffeine intake may induce some specific human reproductive system diseases, even lead to infertility.

Last Updated: 16 Mar 2016

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Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks.
 

Author(s): Amritha Bhat, Nancy Byatt

Journal: Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016 Mar;18(3):31.

 

Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss ...

Last Updated: 5 Feb 2016

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The axoneme: the propulsive engine of spermatozoa and cilia and associated ciliopathies leading to infertility.
 

Author(s): Richard W Linck, Hector Chemes, David F Albertini

Journal: J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.. 2016 Feb;33(2):141-56.

 

This review article provides a critical analysis of the structure and molecular mechanisms of the microtubule axoneme of cilia and sperm flagella and their associated elements required for male fertility.A broad range of genetic and molecular defects (ciliopathies) are considered ...

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

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There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Effectiveness of Homeopathic Treatment in Female Infertility
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Female Infertility

 

Last Updated: 14 Apr 2015

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Uterine Transplant in Absolute Uterine Infertility (AUIF)
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Female Infertility

 

Last Updated: 27 Apr 2016

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Analysis of TU-LESS by 3D Laparoscopy in the Treatment of Infertility
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Infertility, Female

 

Last Updated: 26 Oct 2016

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