Infertility

Common Name(s)

Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant, despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year (or six months under certain circumstances). Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman not being able to carry a pregnancy to full term (resulting in miscarriage). About 10-15% of couples are infertile in the United States. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner or a combination of factors. About one third of the time the cause of infertility only involves the male. About one third of the time, the cause of infertility only involves the female. In the remaining one third of the time, the cause involves both male and female or no cause can be found. The causes of male infertility include abnormal sperm production or function, problems with the delivery of sperm, overexposure to certain environmental factors, or damage related to cancer. Causes of female infertility include ovulation disorders, uterine or cervical abnormalities, fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, thyroid problems, cancer treatment, or other conditions or medications. Risk factors for male and female infertility include advanced age (for women over 35, for men over 40), tobacco use, alcohol use, being overweight or underweight, not enough exercise, or too much strenuous, intense exercise (particularly for women). Diagnosis is made through a number of different tests. Testing and trial treatments may extend over several months. The good news is that there are many safe and effective therapies for overcoming infertility. And due to research, treatment options continue to improve the chances a couple will become pregnant. Talk with your obstetrician or midwife if you are having trouble becoming pregnant. He or she will most likely suggest you see an infertility specialist possibly at an infertility center. Support organizations are also good resources for support and information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Infertility" for support, advocacy or research.

FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered

FORCE is a national nonprofit dedicated to fighting hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. With 50 outreach groups throughout the U.S., and international affiliates, FORCE programs provide support, education, advocacy, awareness and research specific to hereditary cancers. Our programs serve anyone with a BRCA mutation or a family history of cancer. FORCE was founded on the principle that no one should have to face hereditary breast and ovarian cancer alone.

http://www.facingourrisk.org

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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RESOLVE, INC.: The National Infertility Association

RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association, established in 1974, is a non-profit organization with the only established, nationwide network mandated to promote reproductive health and to ensure equal access to all family building options for men and women experiencing infertility or other reproductive disorders. RESOLVE improves the lives of women and men living with infertility by providing community to these women and men, connecting them with others who can help, empowering them to find resolution and giving voice to their demands for access to all family building options.

http://www.resolve.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Infertility" returned 1162 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans.
 

Author(s): Melania Ruggeri, Sara Cannas, Marina Cubeddu, Paola Molicotti, Gennarina Laura Piras, Salvatore Dessole, Stefania Zanetti

Journal: New Microbiol.. 2016 Jul;39(3):206-209.

 

Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore ...

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2016

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Up-Regulation of microRNA-210 is Associated with Spermatogenesis by Targeting IGF2 in Male Infertility.
 

Author(s): Dongdong Tang, Yuanyuan Huang, Weiqun Liu, Xiansheng Zhang

Journal:

 

BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) expression was up-regulated in the testes of sterile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-210 involved in the spermatogenesis in patients with ...

Last Updated: 18 Aug 2016

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Fresh versus Frozen Embryos for Infertility in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
 

Author(s): Zi-Jiang Chen, Yuhua Shi, Yun Sun, Bo Zhang, Xiaoyan Liang, Yunxia Cao, Jing Yang, Jiayin Liu, Daimin Wei, Ning Weng, Lifeng Tian, Cuifang Hao, Dongzi Yang, Feng Zhou, Juanzi Shi, Yongle Xu, Jing Li, Junhao Yan, Yingying Qin, Han Zhao, Heping Zhang, Richard S Legro

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Aug;375(6):523-33.

 

The transfer of fresh embryos is generally preferred over the transfer of frozen embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF), but some evidence suggests that frozen-embryo transfer may improve the live-birth rate and lower the rates of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pregnancy ...

Last Updated: 11 Aug 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Infertility" returned 253 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Conservative Nonhormonal Options for the Treatment of Male Infertility: Antibiotics, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Antioxidants.
 

Author(s): Aldo E Calogero, Rosita A Condorelli, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Sandro La Vignera

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2017 ;2017():4650182.

 

The nonhormonal medical treatment can be divided into empirical, when the cause has not been identified, and nonempirical, if the pathogenic mechanism causing male infertility can be solved or ameliorated. The empirical nonhormonal medical treatment has been proposed for patients ...

Last Updated: 6 Feb 2017

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Physical activity and endometriosis risk in women with infertility or pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Elena Ricci, Paola ViganĂ², Sonia Cipriani, Francesca Chiaffarino, Stefano Bianchi, Giorgia Rebonato, Fabio Parazzini

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(40):e4957.

 

The potential association between endometriosis and physical activity (PA) has been suggested in several epidemiological studies.We aimed to establish whether PA influences endometriosis risk.

Last Updated: 17 Oct 2016

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Clomiphene for anovulatory infertility.
 

Author(s): Riley Davidson, Tarek Motan, Christina Korownyk

Journal: Can Fam Physician. 2016 Jun;62(6):492.

 

Last Updated: 15 Jun 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Effectiveness of Homeopathic Treatment in Female Infertility
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Female Infertility

 

Last Updated: 14 Apr 2015

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Uterine Transplant in Absolute Uterine Infertility (AUIF)
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Female Infertility

 

Last Updated: 27 Apr 2016

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Analysis of TU-LESS by 3D Laparoscopy in the Treatment of Infertility
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Infertility, Female

 

Last Updated: 26 Oct 2016

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