Rhabdomyolysis

Common Name(s)

Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle and the release of muscle cell contents into the bloodstream. Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Environmental factors that may cause rhabdomyolysis include crushing trauma, long surgeries, extreme temperatures, or severe muscle strain such as after a marathon or other athletic event. Other causes include severe dehydration, infection, drug use, and seizures. Genetic disorders such as those causing a reduction in muscle enzymes may also lead to rhabdomyolysis. The risk of rhabdomyolysis may be reduced by proper hydration after workout or injury.

Affected individuals may notice dark red or brown urine due to the excretion of muscle breakdown products. Other symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include vomiting, confusion, muscle aches, weakness, low blood pressure, and a rapid heart rate. In severe cases, complications such as permanent kidney damage may occur.

While some individuals may experience the symptoms described above, milder cases are often asymptomatic and later discovered on blood tests. Medications may be used to regulate urine output, and fluid may be given to restore electrolyte levels and prevent shock and kidney damage. Dialysis may be required to remove muscle breakdown products from the blood in individuals with poor kidney function. If you or your child has been diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Rhabdomyolysis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Rhabdomyolysis" returned 495 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis occurring after binge eating in a young bodybuilder: Case report.
 

Author(s): Tae Won Lee, Eunjin Bae, Kyungo Hwang, Ha Nee Chang, Hee Jung Park, Dae-Hong Jeon, Hyun Seop Cho, Se-Ho Chang, Dong Jun Park

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Oct;96(40):e8251.

 

Severe hypokalemia can be a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.

Last Updated: 6 Oct 2017

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Dynamic changes in Bach1 expression in the kidney of rhabdomyolysis-associated acute kidney injury.
 

Author(s): Masakazu Yamaoka, Hiroko Shimizu, Toru Takahashi, Emiko Omori, Hiroshi Morimatsu

Journal:

 

Free heme, a pro-oxidant released from myoglobin, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-associated acute kidney injury (RM-AKI), because renal overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, confers protection against ...

Last Updated: 13 Jul 2017

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Exotropia in a pediatric patient with rhabdomyolysis caused by an insect sting.
 

Author(s): Won Jae Kim, Saeyoon Kim, Myung Mi Kim

Journal: Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun;65(6):535-537.

 

Various ocular and systemic reactions have been associated with insect sting. However, insect stings have been rarely reported to cause exotropia and diplopia. We encountered exotropia in a 6-year-old child with rhabdomyolysis of the left lower extremities caused by an insect sting. ...

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Rhabdomyolysis" returned 46 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematoma: A case report and review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Anca Meda Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei, Krisztina Szalman, Edit Szekely

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(41):e5125.

 

Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type.

Last Updated: 14 Oct 2016

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Serotonin Syndrome Induced by Combined Use of Mirtazapine and Olanzapine Complicated with Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Renal Failure, and Acute Pulmonary Edema-A Case Report.
 

Author(s): Chi-Shun Wu, Show-Hwa Tong, Cheung-Ter Ong, Sheng-Feng Sung

Journal: Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2015 Dec;24(4):117-21.

 

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening complication of serotonergic agents. Although mirtazapine is a relatively safe antidepressant and has a comparatively low incidence of side effects, it still could induce serotonin syndrome.

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2016

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The Role of Scoring Systems and Urine Dipstick in Prediction of Rhabdomyolysis-induced Acute Kidney Injury: a Systematic Review.
 

Author(s): Saeed Safari, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Behrooz Hashemi, Alireza Baratloo, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Farhad Rahmati, Maryam Motamedi, Iraj Najafi

Journal: Iran J Kidney Dis. 2016 May;10(3):101-6.

 

During the past decade, using serum biomarkers and clinical decision rules for early prediction of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has received much attention from researchers. This study aimed to broadly review the value of scoring systems and urine dipstick in prediction ...

Last Updated: 26 May 2016

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

The Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Physical Performance and Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Physical Performance; Rhabdomyolysis

 

Last Updated: 23 Dec 2015

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Evaluate the Muscle Protection Effect of Sevoflurane Sedation in Vascular Surgery
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Vascular Surgery

 

Last Updated: 10 Jul 2017

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Fatty Acid Oxidation Defects and Insulin Sensitivity
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Very Long-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency; Trifunctional Protein Deficiency; Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency; Medium-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency; Normal Volunteers

 

Last Updated: 26 Sep 2016

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