Hypoglycemia

Common Name(s)

Hypoglycemia, Low blood sugar

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Since glucose is the body’s main source of energy, long periods of low blood sugar can cause significant health problems, including seizures, loss of consciousness, or even death. Initial signs of hypoglycemia include an abnormal heartbeat (palpitations), low energy (fatigue), anxiety, irritability, trembling, and weakness. Without treatment, hypoglycemia can lead to poor concentration, numbness of the mouth, blurred vision and coma.

Hypoglycemia is considered a symptom and not a disease. There are many causes of hypoglycemia. The most common reason is a reaction to certain diabetes medications, specifically insulin. Other less common causes of hypoglycemia include excessive alcohol consumption, certain liver diseases, conditions that cause a person to make too much insulin, and genetic conditions that stop a person from breaking down certain parts of food (protein, fats and sugars). If you or your child’s doctor suspects hypoglycemia, they can confirm the diagnosis by measuring a blood glucose level. A person meets the criteria for hypoglycemia if their symptoms are present during times of low blood sugar and they go away when the blood sugar returns to normal. The treatment of hypoglycemia depends on the cause. The goal of treatment is to raise blood sugar, which can usually be done by consuming fast-acting sugars like candy and fruit juice. If the hypoglycemia is severe enough, your doctor may use glucagon, a hormone that tells your body to immediately raise the blood sugar. If you or your child has been diagnosed with hypoglycemia, talk with your doctor to identify the cause and determine the best treatment.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Hypoglycemia" for support, advocacy or research.

Isabella's Aviary Alliance, LLC

Isabella’s Aviary Alliance, LLC actively demonstrates, through Isabella’s passionate and loving care in breeding and raising baby parrots for other special needs children, the possibility for two hearts—bird and child—coming together and connecting in a way which infinitely brightens the lives of both.

Last Updated: 2 Aug 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Hypoglycemia" for support, advocacy or research.

Isabella's Aviary Alliance, LLC

Isabella’s Aviary Alliance, LLC actively demonstrates, through Isabella’s passionate and loving care in breeding and raising baby parrots for other special needs children, the possibility for two hearts—bird and child—coming together and connecting in a way which infinitely brightens the lives of both.

http://www.isabellasaviary.com

Last Updated: 2 Aug 2013

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Hypoglycemia" returned 882 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Impact of patient and treatment characteristics on glycemic control and hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes initiated to insulin glargine or NPH: A post hoc, pooled, patient-level analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials.
 

Author(s): Francesca Porcellati, Jay Lin, Paola Lucidi, Geremia B Bolli, Carmine G Fanelli

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Feb;96(5):e6022.

 

The goal of this post hoc analysis was to determine key patient and treatment-related factors impacting glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) and hypoglycemia in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who were initiated to basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH] or glargine).

Last Updated: 2 Feb 2017

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Second line initiation of insulin compared with DPP-4 inhibitors after metformin monotherapy is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and severe hypoglycemia.
 

Author(s): Thomas Nyström, Johan Bodegard, David Nathanson, Marcus Thuresson, Anna Norhammar, Jan W Eriksson

Journal: Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.. 2017 Jan;123():199-208.

 

The objective of this nationwide study was to compare the risk of all-cause mortality, fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD), and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on metformin monotherapy treatment starting second-line treatment with either insulin ...

Last Updated: 5 Jan 2017

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Restoration of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Response to Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes by Avoiding Chronic Hypoglycemia.
 

Author(s): Shin-Ichi Tsuda, Kazunori Konishi, Toshiki Otoda, Takako Nagai, Ai Takeda-Watanabe, Megumi Kanasaki, Munehiro Kitada, Atsushi Nakagawa, Makoto Nishizawa, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya

Journal: Intern. Med.. ;55(23):3471-3473.

 

An impaired ability to sense and respond to drug-induced hypoglycemia is a common and serious complication in diabetic patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity plays a critical role in the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. We herein report a case ...

Last Updated: 1 Dec 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Hypoglycemia" returned 82 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Association Between Severe Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
 

Author(s): Atsushi Goto, Maki Goto, Yasuo Terauchi, Naohito Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiko Noda

Journal:

 

It remains unclear whether severe hypoglycemia is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asian populations with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Furthermore, no study in Japan, where the prescription patterns differ from those in other countries, has examined this association.

Last Updated: 10 Mar 2016

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Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Infancy: Current Concepts in Diagnosis and Management.
 

Author(s): Shrenik Vora, Suresh Chandran, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Khalid Hussain

Journal: Indian Pediatr. 2015 Dec;52(12):1051-9.

 

Molecular basis of various forms of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, involving defects in key genes regulating insulin secretion, are being increasingly reported. However, the management of medically unresponsive hyperinsulinism still remains a challenge as current facilities for genetic ...

Last Updated: 30 Dec 2015

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Cardiovascular Implications of Hypoglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus.
 

Author(s): Kim A Connelly, Andrew T Yan, Lawrence A Leiter, Deepak L Bhatt, Subodh Verma

Journal: Circulation. 2015 Dec;132(24):2345-50.

 

Last Updated: 15 Dec 2015

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Last Updated: 2 Feb 2017

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Hypoglycemia and the Mineralocorticoid Receptor
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hypoglycemia

 

Last Updated: 6 Jul 2015

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Differing Levels of Hypoglycemia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hypoglycemia

 

Last Updated: 9 Feb 2017

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