Lyme disease

Common Name(s)

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by three types of Borrellia bacteria. One type is most common in the United States, while the other two types are more common in Europe and Asia. These bacteria are carried by certain ticks; in the United States most commonly the deer tick, in Europe the sheep tick, and in China the taiga tick. An infected tick can pass the bacteria to humans (and other animals) through its bites. However, the transfer of bacteria is believed to only begin after 36-48 hours of the tick being attached.

A characteristic circular rash often develops around the tick bite within 3-30 days and is diagnostic, meaning treatment should begin immediately. Sometimes the rash appears like a bull’s-eye, other times it is a solid red patch, and sometimes the rash does not occur exactly at the site of the tick bite. Other early symptoms include flu like symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches. Laboratory blood tests are not considered reliable until at least one month after becoming infected through a tick bite. Therefore, it is important if you have flu like symptoms with or without a rash to let your doctor know you have been bitten by a tick within a month’s time.

As symptoms progress, an individual may have a stiff neck, severe fatigue, tingling sensation in the hands or feet, or facial paralysis. Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with Lyme disease, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Lyme disease" for support, advocacy or research.

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American Lyme Disease Foundation

The American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. is dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. The Foundation plays a key role in providing reliable and scientifically accurate information to the public, medical community and government agencies about Lyme disease and its effects on human health and quality of life.

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Lyme disease" for support, advocacy or research.

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American Lyme Disease Foundation

The American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. is dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. The Foundation plays a key role in providing reliable and scientifically accurate information to the public, medical community and government agencies about Lyme disease and its effects on human health and quality of life.

http://www.aldf.com

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Lyme disease" returned 736 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease.
 

Author(s): Elzbieta Jacek, Kevin S Tang, Lars Komorowski, Mary Ajamian, Christian Probst, Brian Stevenson, Gary P Wormser, Adriana R Marques, Armin Alaedini

Journal: J. Immunol.. 2016 Feb;196(3):1036-43.

 

Most immunogenic proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are known or expected to contain multiple B cell epitopes. However, the kinetics of the development of human B cell responses toward the various epitopes of individual proteins during the course ...

Last Updated: 23 Jan 2016

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Third-degree heart block as initial presentation of Lyme disease.
 

Author(s): Priyank Shah, Pruyam Mithawala, Sharad Bajaj, Hartaj Virk, Mahesh Bikkina

Journal: Acta Cardiol. 2015 Dec;70(6):744-5.

 

Last Updated: 31 Dec 2015

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Hypothetical Protein BB0569 Is Essential for Chemotaxis of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.
 

Author(s): Kai Zhang, Jun Liu, Nyles W Charon, Chunhao Li

Journal:

 

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has five putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). In this report, we provide evidence that a hypothetical protein, BB0569, is essential for the chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi. While BB0569 lacks significant homology to the ...

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Lyme disease" returned 75 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

GIS and Remote Sensing Use in the Exploration of Lyme Disease Epidemiology.
 

Author(s): Esra Ozdenerol

Journal:

 

Given the relatively recent recognition of Lyme disease (LD) by CDC in 1990 as a nationally notifiable infectious condition, the rise of reported human cases every year argues for a better understanding of its geographic scope. The aim of this inquiry was to explore research conducted ...

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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Evolutionary aspects of emerging Lyme disease in Canada.
 

Author(s): N H Ogden, E J Feil, P A Leighton, L R Lindsay, G Margos, S Mechai, P Michel, T J Moriarty

Journal: Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2015 Nov;81(21):7350-9.

 

In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is maintained by wildlife. Tick vectors and bacteria are currently spreading into Canada and causing increasing numbers of cases of LD in humans ...

Last Updated: 3 Oct 2015

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vls Antigenic Variation Systems of Lyme Disease Borrelia: Eluding Host Immunity through both Random, Segmental Gene Conversion and Framework Heterogeneity.
 

Author(s): Steven J Norris

Journal: Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Dec;2(6):.

 

Spirochetes that cause Lyme borreliosis (also called Lyme disease) possess the vls locus, encoding an elaborate antigenic variation system. This locus contains the expression site vlsE as well as a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes, which contain variations of the central cassette ...

Last Updated: 24 Jun 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Xenodiagnosis After Antibiotic Treatment for Lyme Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Lyme Disease

 

Last Updated: 11 May 2016

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Evaluation, Treatment, and Follow-up of Patients With Lyme Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Lyme Disease

 

Last Updated: 11 May 2016

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Meditation and Stretching for Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 26 Jan 2015

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