Lyme disease

Common Name(s)

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by three types of Borrellia bacteria. One type is most common in the United States, while the other two types are more common in Europe and Asia. These bacteria are carried by certain ticks; in the United States most commonly the deer tick, in Europe the sheep tick, and in China the taiga tick. An infected tick can pass the bacteria to humans (and other animals) through its bites. However, the transfer of bacteria is believed to only begin after 36-48 hours of the tick being attached.

A characteristic circular rash often develops around the tick bite within 3-30 days and is diagnostic, meaning treatment should begin immediately. Sometimes the rash appears like a bull’s-eye, other times it is a solid red patch, and sometimes the rash does not occur exactly at the site of the tick bite. Other early symptoms include flu like symptoms such as fever, chills, body aches, and fever. Laboratory blood tests are not considered reliable until at least one month after becoming infected through a tick bite. Therefore, it is important if you have flu like symptoms with or without a rash to let your doctor know you have been bitten by a tick within a month’s time.

As symptoms progress, an individual may have a stiff neck, severe fatigue, tingling sensation in the hands or feet, or facial paralysis. Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with Lyme disease, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Lyme disease" for support, advocacy or research.

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American Lyme Disease Foundation

The American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. is dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. The Foundation plays a key role in providing reliable and scientifically accurate information to the public, medical community and government agencies about Lyme disease and its effects on human health and quality of life.

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Lyme disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
American Lyme Disease Foundation

The American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. is dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. The Foundation plays a key role in providing reliable and scientifically accurate information to the public, medical community and government agencies about Lyme disease and its effects on human health and quality of life.

http://www.aldf.com

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Lyme disease" returned 703 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Images in clinical medicine. Disseminated Lyme disease.
 

Author(s): Nora Regelin, Ernesto Montaruli

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2015 May;372(22):2136.

 

Last Updated: 28 May 2015

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Cyclic di-GMP modulates gene expression in Lyme disease spirochetes at the tick-mammal interface to promote spirochete survival during the blood meal and tick-to-mammal transmission.
 

Author(s): Melissa J Caimano, Star Dunham-Ems, Anna M Allard, Maria B Cassera, Melisha Kenedy, Justin D Radolf

Journal: Infect. Immun.. 2015 Aug;83(8):3043-60.

 

Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival ...

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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Factors associated with preventive behaviors regarding Lyme disease in Canada and Switzerland: a comparative study.
 

Author(s): Cécile Aenishaenslin, Pascal Michel, André Ravel, Lise Gern, François Milord, Jean-Philippe Waaub, Denise Bélanger

Journal:

 

Lyme disease (LD) is a vector-borne disease that is endemic in many temperate countries, including Switzerland, and is currently emerging in Canada. This study compares the importance of knowledge, exposure and risk perception for the adoption of individual preventive measures, within ...

Last Updated: 18 Apr 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Lyme disease" returned 69 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Update on persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease.
 

Author(s): Carlos R Oliveira, Eugene D Shapiro

Journal: Curr. Opin. Pediatr.. 2015 Feb;27(1):100-4.

 

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The pathogenesis, ecology, and epidemiology of Lyme disease have been well described, and antimicrobial treatment is very effective. There has been controversy about whether ...

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2015

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Co-feeding transmission in Lyme disease pathogens.
 

Author(s): Maarten J Voordouw

Journal: Parasitology. 2015 Feb;142(2):290-302.

 

This review examines the phenomenon of co-feeding transmission in tick-borne pathogens. This mode of transmission is critical for the epidemiology of several tick-borne viruses but its importance for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, is still ...

Last Updated: 2 Feb 2015

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Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease.
 

Author(s): Daniel J Cameron, Lorraine B Johnson, Elizabeth L Maloney

Journal: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014 Sep;12(9):1103-35.

 

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease were developed by the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS). The guidelines address three clinical questions - the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis for known tick bites, the effectiveness ...

Last Updated: 11 Aug 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Evaluation, Treatment, and Follow-up of Patients With Lyme Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Lyme Disease

 

Last Updated: 4 Feb 2016

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Meditation and Stretching for Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 26 Jan 2015

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Evaluation of Lyme Disease: Clinical, Microbiological and Immunological Characteristics
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Lyme Disease

 

Last Updated: 24 Sep 2015

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