Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1

Common Name(s)

Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), synthesized in the epidermis in response to UV radiation, and dietary vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, synthesized in plants) are devoid of any biologic activity. Vitamin D hormonal activity is due primarily to the hydroxylated metabolite of vitamin D3, 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), the actions of which are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR; {601769}) ({11:Koren, 2006}; {17:Liberman and Marx, 2001}). In the liver, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1; {608713}) catalyzes the initial hydroxylation of vitamin D at carbon 25; in the kidney, 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1; {609506}) catalyzes the hydroxylation and metabolic activation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 binds and activates the nuclear vitamin D receptor, with subsequent regulation of physiologic events such as calcium homeostasis and cellular differentiation and proliferation ({25:Takeyama et al., 1997}). Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or action lead to defective bone mineralization and clinical features including intestinal malabsorption of calcium, hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased renal clearance of phosphorus, and hypophosphatemia. The combination of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of bone that results in rickets and osteomalacia ({17:Liberman and Marx, 2001}). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) is due to an enzymatic defect in synthesis of the active form of vitamin D caused by mutation in the CYP27B1 gene. VDDR1B ({600081}) is a form of rickets due to mutation in the gene encoding a vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1; {608713}), another enzyme necessary for the synthesis of active vitamin D. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A; {277440}) is caused by end-organ unresponsiveness of active vitamin D due to mutation in the gene encoding the vitamin D receptor (VDR; {601769}). VDDR2B {600785} is an unusual form of end-organ unresponsiveness to active vitamin D due to an abnormal protein (see HNRNPC, {164020}) that interferes with the function of the VDR. Other Forms of Hypophosphatemic Rickets For a discussion of other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets, see ADHR ({193100}).
 

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