Recurrent spontaneous abortion

Common Name(s)

Recurrent spontaneous abortion, Recurrent miscarriage

Miscarriage, the commonest complication of pregnancy, is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached viability. The term therefore includes all pregnancy losses from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent miscarriage, defined as 3 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, affects about 1% of couples; when defined as 2 or more losses, the scale of the problem increases to 5% of all couples trying to conceive (summary by {10:Rai and Regan, 2006}). Pregnancy losses have traditionally been designated 'spontaneous abortions' if they occur before 20 weeks gestation and 'stillbirths' if they occur after 20 weeks. Subtypes of spontaneous abortions can be further distinguished on the basis of embryonic development and include anembryonic loss in the first 5 weeks after conception (so-called 'blighted ovum'), embryonic loss from 6 to 9 weeks' gestation, and fetal loss from 10 weeks' gestation through the remainder of the pregnancy. These distinctions are important because the causes of pregnancy loss vary over gestational ages, with anembryonic losses being more likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities, for example. Possible etiologies for RPRGL include uterine anatomic abnormalities, cytogenetic abnormalities in the parents or fetus, single gene disorders, thrombophilic conditions, and immunologic or endocrine factors as well as environmental or infectious agents (summary by {13:Warren and Silver, 2008}). Genetic Heterogeneity of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Susceptibility to RPRGL can also be caused by mutation in the coagulation factor II gene ({176930}) on chromosome 11p11-q12 (RPRGL2; {614390}). RPRGL3 ({614391}) is caused by mutation in the ANXA5 gene ({131230}) on chromosome 4q26-q28. RPRGL4 is caused by mutation in the SYCP3 gene ({604759}) on chromosome 12q23. Genetic variation in the conceptus itself that results in decreased viability of the embryo or fetus is discussed in the respective gene and/or phenotype entry (see, e.g., MTHFR, {607093.0004}; NLRP7, {609661}; hydatidiform mole, {231090}).
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

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Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

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Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

http://www.mend.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 65 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

War and peace at the feto-placental front line: recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Caterina De Carolis, Carlo Perricone, Roberto Perricone

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2014 Oct;16(10):667-8.

 

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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The HLA-G 14bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Fateme Afkhami, Mahmoud Shekari Khaniani, Layia Farzadi, Zeynab Paknejad, Sima Mansoori Derakhshan

Journal: Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Oct;13(5):364-9.

 

HLA-G is a non-classical HLA class Ib molecule with limited protein variability generated by alternative splicing. HLA-G displays immunotolerant properties and hence plays important roles in the maintenance of a successful pregnancy and maternal tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. ...

Last Updated: 23 Aug 2014

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Alteration of Th17 and Treg cells in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion before and after lymphocyte immunization therapy.
 

Author(s): Li Wu, Li-Hua Luo, Ying-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Bo Xu, Gui-Xiang Zhou, Hong-Bing Luan, Yu-Sheng Liu

Journal:

 

Several types of T cells have been associated with the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA), including Th1/Th2/Th17/Tregs cell. It has been appreciated that immunotherapy with paternal or third party lymphocytes is an effective method of treatment for ...

Last Updated: 16 Aug 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 4 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Placental pathology of recurrent spontaneous abortion: the role of histopathological examination of products of conception in routine clinical practice: a mini review.
 

Author(s): P Jindal, L Regan, E O Fourkala, R Rai, G Moore, R D Goldin, N J Sebire

Journal: Hum. Reprod.. 2007 Feb;22(2):313-6.

 

Histopathological examination of products of conception from miscarriages is part of routine clinical practice. The extent of additional clinically relevant information provided by this investigation in the setting of recurrent spontaneous abortion remains uncertain.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2007

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Endometriosis and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion: pathological states resulting from aberrant modulation of natural killer cell function?
 

Author(s): E Somigliana, P ViganĂ², M Vignali

Journal: Hum. Reprod. Update. ;5(1):40-51.

 

The observation that natural killer (NK) cell activity is abnormally low in endometriosis patients and abnormally high in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion represents, at present, an intriguing curiosity. There is evidence suggesting that these conditions ...

Last Updated: 13 Jul 1999

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Sex Chromosome Genetics '99. The X chromosome and recurrent spontaneous abortion: the significance of transmanifesting carriers.
 

Author(s): M C Lanasa, W A Hogge, E P Hoffman

Journal: Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 1999 Apr;64(4):934-8.

 

Last Updated: 5 Apr 2000

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of PGS in Infertile Female Patients With REPL
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Infertility, Female; Abortion, Habitual

 

Last Updated: 3 Jun 2015

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Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of GB-0998 in Unexplained Primary Recurrent Miscarriage
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Recurrent Miscarriage

 

Last Updated: 11 Jun 2015

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Maternal KIR and Fetal HLA-C Genes in Recurrent Miscarriages
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Recurrent Miscarriages

 

Last Updated: 13 Dec 2005

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