Recurrent spontaneous abortion

Common Name(s)

Recurrent spontaneous abortion, Recurrent miscarriage

Miscarriage, the commonest complication of pregnancy, is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached viability. The term therefore includes all pregnancy losses from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent miscarriage, defined as 3 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, affects about 1% of couples; when defined as 2 or more losses, the scale of the problem increases to 5% of all couples trying to conceive (summary by {10:Rai and Regan, 2006}). Pregnancy losses have traditionally been designated 'spontaneous abortions' if they occur before 20 weeks gestation and 'stillbirths' if they occur after 20 weeks. Subtypes of spontaneous abortions can be further distinguished on the basis of embryonic development and include anembryonic loss in the first 5 weeks after conception (so-called 'blighted ovum'), embryonic loss from 6 to 9 weeks' gestation, and fetal loss from 10 weeks' gestation through the remainder of the pregnancy. These distinctions are important because the causes of pregnancy loss vary over gestational ages, with anembryonic losses being more likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities, for example. Possible etiologies for RPRGL include uterine anatomic abnormalities, cytogenetic abnormalities in the parents or fetus, single gene disorders, thrombophilic conditions, and immunologic or endocrine factors as well as environmental or infectious agents (summary by {13:Warren and Silver, 2008}). Genetic Heterogeneity of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Susceptibility to RPRGL2 ({614390}) is conferred by mutation in the coagulation factor II gene ({176930}) on chromosome 11p11; RPRGL3 ({614391}) by mutation in the ANXA5 gene ({131230}) on chromosome 4q27; and RPRGL4 (see {270960}) by mutation in the SYCP3 gene ({604759}) on chromosome 12q23. Genetic variation in the conceptus itself that results in decreased viability of the embryo or fetus is discussed in the respective gene and/or phenotype entry (see, e.g., MTHFR, {607093.0004}; NLRP7, {609661}; hydatidiform mole, {231090}).
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

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Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

http://www.mend.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 79 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Annexin A5 haplotype M2 is not a risk factor for recurrent spontaneous abortion in Northern Europe: is there sufficient evidence?
 

Author(s): Arseni Markoff, Hiroki Kurahashi, Elvira Grandone, Nadja Bogdanova

Journal: Reprod. Biomed. Online. 2016 May;32(5):469-73.

 

The M2 haplotype of the annexin A5 gene is a well-recognized predisposition factor for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). A recent publication by Nagirnaja et al. (2015) in PLoS One discusses the risk role of the M2 haplotype for RSA in cases compared with controls of North European ...

Last Updated: 18 Apr 2016

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Increased CD56(+) NK cells and enhanced Th1 responses in human unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Y Gao, P L Wang

Journal:

 

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is reported to be associated with immune imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface. Immune cells in the decidual tissue are involved in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy; however, whether natural killer (NK) and T cells are altered ...

Last Updated: 19 Jan 2016

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The -2549 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGFA gene in couples with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Nina Pereza, Saša Ostojić, Anamarija Smirčić, Alenka Hodžić, Miljenko Kapović, Borut Peterlin

Journal: J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.. 2015 Dec;32(12):1789-94.

 

The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is crucial for normal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during pregnancy, and alterations in the VEGFA gene expression were detected in women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA) and spontaneously aborted conceptuses. ...

Last Updated: 29 Feb 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 8 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Quality of reporting on randomized controlled trials on recurrent spontaneous abortion in China.
 

Author(s): Jie Gao, Gaopi Deng, Yunyun Hu, Yanxi Huang, Liming Lu, Dandan Huang, Yadi Li, Lin Zhu, Xiaojing Liu, Xin Jin, Songping Luo

Journal:

 

Despite increasing numbers of RCTs done in China, detailed information on the quality of Chinese RCTs is still missing. The aim of this study was to assess the reporting quality of RSA RCTs and to identify significant predictors of reporting quality.

Last Updated: 21 Apr 2015

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Association of VEGF genetic polymorphisms with recurrent spontaneous abortion risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Xinghua Xu, Chigang Du, Huihui Li, Jing Du, Xue Yan, Lina Peng, Guangyao Li, Zi-Jiang Chen

Journal:

 

Studies of the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have revealed conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to provide a more precise estimation of these relationships ...

Last Updated: 21 Apr 2015

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A critical update on endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene variations in women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion: genetic association study, systematic review and meta-analyses.
 

Author(s): N Pereza, B Peterlin, M Volk, M Kapović, S Ostojić

Journal: Mol. Hum. Reprod.. 2015 May;21(5):466-78.

 

A number of case-control studies investigated the association between idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA) and variations in the gene encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), but yielded contradictory results. Our aim was to test the association of the NOS3 variable ...

Last Updated: 24 Apr 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Associated With Thrombophilla
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Thrombophilia With Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

 

Last Updated: 8 Dec 2016

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Effects of PGS in Infertile Female Patients With RPL
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Infertility, Female; Abortion, Habitual

 

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2016

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Use of Cyclosporin A for the Treatment of Recurrent Miscarriage
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Miscarriage, Recurrent

 

Last Updated: 12 Mar 2016

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