Recurrent spontaneous abortion

Common Name(s)

Recurrent spontaneous abortion, Recurrent miscarriage

Miscarriage, the commonest complication of pregnancy, is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached viability. The term therefore includes all pregnancy losses from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent miscarriage, defined as 3 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, affects about 1% of couples; when defined as 2 or more losses, the scale of the problem increases to 5% of all couples trying to conceive (summary by {10:Rai and Regan, 2006}). Pregnancy losses have traditionally been designated 'spontaneous abortions' if they occur before 20 weeks gestation and 'stillbirths' if they occur after 20 weeks. Subtypes of spontaneous abortions can be further distinguished on the basis of embryonic development and include anembryonic loss in the first 5 weeks after conception (so-called 'blighted ovum'), embryonic loss from 6 to 9 weeks' gestation, and fetal loss from 10 weeks' gestation through the remainder of the pregnancy. These distinctions are important because the causes of pregnancy loss vary over gestational ages, with anembryonic losses being more likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities, for example. Possible etiologies for RPRGL include uterine anatomic abnormalities, cytogenetic abnormalities in the parents or fetus, single gene disorders, thrombophilic conditions, and immunologic or endocrine factors as well as environmental or infectious agents (summary by {13:Warren and Silver, 2008}). Genetic Heterogeneity of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Susceptibility to RPRGL can also be caused by mutation in the coagulation factor II gene ({176930}) on chromosome 11p11-q12 (RPRGL2; {614390}). RPRGL3 ({614391}) is caused by mutation in the ANXA5 gene ({131230}) on chromosome 4q26-q28. RPRGL4 is caused by mutation in the SYCP3 gene ({604759}) on chromosome 12q23. Genetic variation in the conceptus itself that results in decreased viability of the embryo or fetus is discussed in the respective gene and/or phenotype entry (see, e.g., MTHFR, {607093.0004}; NLRP7, {609661}; hydatidiform mole, {231090}).
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

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Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" for support, advocacy or research.

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Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death

M.E.N.D. (Mommies Enduring Neonatal Death) is a Christian, non-profit organization that reaches out to families who have suffered the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or early infant death.

http://www.mend.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 70 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Galectin-1 reduction and changes in T regulatory cells may play crucial roles in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Minjun Wu, Ping Liu, Licun Cheng

Journal:

 

To investigate the changes of Galectin-1 and T-lymphocyte phenotypes in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Totally 60 participants were recruited and divided into 3 groups in average: pregnant patients with URSA (URSA group), normal early pregnant women with induced ...

Last Updated: 14 May 2015

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Different expression of NOD2 in decidual stromal cells between normal and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion women during first trimester gestation.
 

Author(s): Yuanyuan Zhang, Chunfeng Yang, Shuai Fu, Xin Chen, Shining Zhang, Yiyang Li, Meirong Du, Jianping Zhang

Journal:

 

The NOD2 gene, encoding intracellular paternal recognition receptor (PRR) also called caspase activation and recruitment domain 15 (CARD15), is mutated in Crohn's disease, an autoimmune-disorder. Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) involved in complex auto-immune disorder. ...

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2015

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War and peace at the feto-placental front line: recurrent spontaneous abortion.
 

Author(s): Caterina De Carolis, Carlo Perricone, Roberto Perricone

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2014 Oct;16(10):667-8.

 

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Recurrent spontaneous abortion" returned 6 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Association of VEGF genetic polymorphisms with recurrent spontaneous abortion risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Xinghua Xu, Chigang Du, Huihui Li, Jing Du, Xue Yan, Lina Peng, Guangyao Li, Zi-Jiang Chen

Journal:

 

Studies of the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have revealed conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to provide a more precise estimation of these relationships ...

Last Updated: 21 Apr 2015

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Genetic regulation of recurrent spontaneous abortion in humans.
 

Author(s): Daniel Vaiman

Journal: Biomed J. ;38(1):11-24.

 

Recurrent pregnancy loss, defined as a pregnancy failure occurring before 24 weeks of gestation more than two or three times according to most definitions, is a fertility defect encountered in 1-5% of the patients. This defect is of course of multifactorial origin. Among the possible ...

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2015

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Placental pathology of recurrent spontaneous abortion: the role of histopathological examination of products of conception in routine clinical practice: a mini review.
 

Author(s): P Jindal, L Regan, E O Fourkala, R Rai, G Moore, R D Goldin, N J Sebire

Journal: Hum. Reprod.. 2007 Feb;22(2):313-6.

 

Histopathological examination of products of conception from miscarriages is part of routine clinical practice. The extent of additional clinically relevant information provided by this investigation in the setting of recurrent spontaneous abortion remains uncertain.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2007

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of PGS in Infertile Female Patients With REPL
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Infertility, Female; Abortion, Habitual

 

Last Updated: 2 Jan 2016

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Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of GB-0998 in Unexplained Primary Recurrent Miscarriage
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Recurrent Miscarriage

 

Last Updated: 3 Feb 2016

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Maternal KIR and Fetal HLA-C Genes in Recurrent Miscarriages
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Recurrent Miscarriages

 

Last Updated: 13 Dec 2005

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