Obesity

Common Name(s)

Obesity

Obesity is a condition characterized by the build up of excessive body fat. Obesity is defined differently depending on the country, but in Western countries, such as the U.S. and many European countries, obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m^2.

A BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight (in kilograms) and dividing it by the square of their height (in meters). Using the BMI, doctors may classify someone as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. Obesity is further broken down into three categories. First, obesity I is measured as a BMI of 30-34.99 kg/m^2, obesity II is 35-39.99 kg/m^2, and obesity III is a BMI greater than 40 kg/m^2. It is important to note that these values are only recognized for adults (18+ years old). In adolescents, different scales are used based on a number of factors.

There are many potential causes for obesity such as environmental, genetic, or both. Contributing factors that may lead to obesity include a poor diet, little or no exercise, infections, and certain genetic conditions. Other contributing factors may include some social determinants such as socioeconomic class and geographic location. In any case, obesity can lead to serious health problems, including a lower life expectancy. On average, obesity can reduce an individual's life expectancy by six to seven years. Obesity may also lead to an increased risk for many conditions including type II diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, many cancers, gastrointestinal conditions, abnormal or poor breathing, depression, and more.

Generally, obesity is treated with certain lifestyle changes such as diet plans and making exercise routines. Medications and surgeries may also be an option depending on the cause of the obesity, its severity, and the individual's choices. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with obesity, contact your doctor to discuss the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Obesity" for support, advocacy or research.

Hepatitis Foundation International

Hepatitis Foundation International is dedicated to promoting wellness and healthy lifestyles for all individuals in order to reduce the incidence of preventable diseases that affect the liver’s health including: obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse. We inform, educate, and empower by making available reliable and up-to-date information.

Last Updated: 23 Feb 2015

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Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 16 Mar 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Obesity" for support, advocacy or research.

Hepatitis Foundation International

Hepatitis Foundation International is dedicated to promoting wellness and healthy lifestyles for all individuals in order to reduce the incidence of preventable diseases that affect the liver’s health including: obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse. We inform, educate, and empower by making available reliable and up-to-date information.

http://www.HepatitisFoundation.org

Last Updated: 23 Feb 2015

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Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

http://www.bardetbiedl.org/

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

View Details
HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 16 Mar 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Obesity" returned 8007 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Biologically inactive leptin and early-onset extreme obesity.
 

Author(s): Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Martin Wabitsch

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2015 Mar;372(13):1266-7.

 

Last Updated: 26 Mar 2015

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Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
 

Author(s): Adam E Locke, Bratati Kahali, Sonja I Berndt, Anne E Justice, Tune H Pers, Felix R Day, Corey Powell, Sailaja Vedantam, Martin L Buchkovich, Jian Yang, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Tonu Esko, Tove Fall, Teresa Ferreira, Stefan Gustafsson, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Joshua C Randall, Thomas W Winkler, Andrew R Wood, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jessica D Faul, Jennifer A Smith, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Jin Chen, Rudolf Fehrmann, Åsa K Hedman, Juha Karjalainen, Ellen M Schmidt, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Denise Anderson, Marian Beekman, Jennifer L Bolton, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Steven Buyske, Ayse Demirkan, Guohong Deng, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne U Jackson, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Sarah E Medland, Michael A Nalls, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Marjolein J Peters, Inga Prokopenko, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Aaron Isaacs, Eva Albrecht, Johan Ärnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Antony P Attwood, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Isabelita N Bas, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Roza Blagieva, Matthias Blüher, Stefan Böhringer, Lori L Bonnycastle, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Ida H Caspersen, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Robert Clarke, E Warwick Daw, Anton J M de Craen, Graciela Delgado, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Niina Eklund, Karol Estrada, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Ross M Fraser, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Bruna Gigante, Alan S Go, Alain Golay, Alison H Goodall, Scott D Gordon, Mathias Gorski, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher J Groves, Gaëlle Gusto, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Goran Hallmans, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Christian Hengstenberg, Oddgeir Holmen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Alan L James, Janina M Jeff, Åsa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Leena Kinnunen, Wolfgang Koenig, Markku Koskenvuo, Wolfgang Kratzer, Jaana Laitinen, Claudia Lamina, Karin Leander, Nanette R Lee, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Ken Sin Lo, Stéphane Lobbens, Roberto Lorbeer, Yingchang Lu, François Mach, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Wendy L McArdle, Stela McLachlan, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Evelin Mihailov, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Antonella Mulas, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Markus M Nöthen, Ilja M Nolte, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Rainer Rettig, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, William R Scott, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Amy J Swift, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Sian-Tsung Tan, Bamidele O Tayo, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Hae-Won Uh, Liesbeth Vandenput, Frank C Verhulst, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Helen R Warren, Dawn Waterworth, Michael N Weedon, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, , Eoin P Brennan, Murim Choi, Zari Dastani, Alexander W Drong, Per Eriksson, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Jesper R Gådin, Ali G Gharavi, Michael E Goddard, Robert E Handsaker, Jinyan Huang, Fredrik Karpe, Sekar Kathiresan, Sarah Keildson, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Michiaki Kubo, Jong-Young Lee, Liming Liang, Richard P Lifton, Baoshan Ma, Steven A McCarroll, Amy J McKnight, Josine L Min, Miriam F Moffatt, Grant W Montgomery, Joanne M Murabito, George Nicholson, Dale R Nyholt, Yukinori Okada, John R B Perry, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Eva Reinmaa, Rany M Salem, Niina Sandholm, Robert A Scott, Lisette Stolk, Atsushi Takahashi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Ferdinand M Van't Hooft, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Wei Zheng, Krina T Zondervan, , , , , , , , , , , , , , Andrew C Heath, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, John Blangero, Pascal Bovet, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Giancarlo Cesana, Aravinda Chakravarti, Daniel I Chasman, Peter S Chines, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, Daniele Cusi, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Anna F Dominiczak, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Stephan B Felix, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Oscar H Franco, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Thomas Illig, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Berit Johansen, Pekka Jousilahti, J Wouter Jukema, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Paul Knekt, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Valeriya Lyssenko, Satu Männistö, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Colin A McKenzie, Barbara McKnight, Frans L Moll, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Pamela A F Madden, Gerard Pasterkamp, John F Peden, Annette Peters, Dirkje S Postma, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Paul M Ridker, John D Rioux, Marylyn D Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Heribert Schunkert, Peter E H Schwarz, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Ronald P Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Anke Tönjes, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, Uwe Völker, Gérard Waeber, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline C Witteman, M Carola Zillikens, Linda S Adair, Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Stefan R Bornstein, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimaki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Andres Metspalu, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Fernando Rivadeneira, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, Naveed Sattar, Eric E Schadt, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Mark Walker, Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, David R Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S Fox, Iris M Heid, Jeffrey R O'Connell, David P Strachan, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Lude Franke, Timothy M Frayling, Mark I McCarthy, Peter M Visscher, André Scherag, Cristen J Willer, Michael Boehnke, Karen L Mohlke, Cecilia M Lindgren, Jacques S Beckmann, Inês Barroso, Kari E North, Erik Ingelsson, Joel N Hirschhorn, Ruth J F Loos, Elizabeth K Speliotes

Journal: Nature. 2015 Feb;518(7538):197-206.

 

Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to ...

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2015

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Breastfeeding initiation: impact of obesity in a large Canadian perinatal cohort study.
 

Author(s): Julie Verret-Chalifour, Yves Giguère, Jean-Claude Forest, Jordie Croteau, Peiyin Zhang, Isabelle Marc

Journal:

 

To evaluate incidence of breastfeeding initiation according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in "Grossesse en Santé", a large prospective birth cohort in Quebec City.

Last Updated: 9 Feb 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Obesity" returned 1611 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Obesity: an additional piece in the mosaic of autoimmunity.
 

Author(s): Mathilde Versini, Gali Aljadeff, Pierre-Yves Jeandel, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2014 Oct;16(10):619-21.

 

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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[Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].
 

Author(s): Macarena Valladares, Gino Corsini, Carmen Romero

Journal: Rev Med Chil. 2014 May;142(5):593-8.

 

Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained ...

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2014

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Obesity-related hypertension: possible pathophysiological mechanisms.
 

Author(s): Ivana Vaněčková, Lenka Maletínská, Michal Behuliak, Veronika Nagelová, Josef Zicha, Jaroslav Kuneš

Journal: J. Endocrinol.. 2014 Dec;223(3):R63-78.

 

Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, but despite a century of clinical and basic research, the discrete etiology of this disease is still not fully understood. The same is true for obesity, which is recognized as a major global epidemic health ...

Last Updated: 11 Nov 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Development of Melt Organic Baking Fat for Reducing Child Obesity
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Obesity; Overweight; Pediatric Obesity

 

Last Updated: 21 Jan 2015

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Factors Associated With Chronic Respiratory Failure in Obesity
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Obesity; Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 7 Jul 2011

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Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Influence of Obesity
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Obesity; Morbid Obesity

 

Last Updated: 9 Jan 2014

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