Cryptorchidism

Common Name(s)

Cryptorchidism, Undescended testes

Undescended testes, or cryptorchidism, is a condition in which one testis or both testes (or testicles) does not descend from the abdomen into the scrotum by the time of birth. The scrotum is the sac of skin beneath the penis and is the proper location of the testes. This condition is more common among baby boys who are born prematurely, or before 37 weeks of pregnancy. This is a common condition that affects about 30% of premature and 4% of full term male births. Other risk factors for undescended testes are a low birth weight, a family history of undescended testes, having a mother affected by diabetes or obesity, and having a mother who smoked or used alcohol during pregnancy.

During development in the womb, the testes will naturally descend from the abdomen to the scrotum through a tube-like structure called the inguinal canal. If the testes fail to descend, they may be located in the abdomen or in the canal, or they may be completely absent. In a male who is born with only one testicle or with no testicles in the scrotum, it is most common for the testes to be undescended testes and to be located in the inguinal canal. Undescended testes may increase the risk for testicular cancer, and having two undescended testes may affect fertility. This condition can be diagnosed by a doctor by a physical examination.

The goal of treatment for undescended testes is to get the testis or testes to move into the scrotum. Sometimes this may happen naturally, usually by the time the boy reaches 9 months of age, or a doctor may be able to help. If the testes do not descend by 9 months of age, they can be relocated by a minor surgery known as orchiopexy. If your son has been diagnosed with undescended testes, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Cryptorchidism" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 164 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age.
 

Author(s): R Varela-Cives, R Mendez-Gallart, E Estevez-Martinez, P Rodriguez-Barca, A Bautista-Casasnovas, M Pombo-Arias, R Tojo-Sierra

Journal: Int Braz J Urol. ;41(1):57-66.

 

To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood.

Last Updated: 1 May 2015

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[Seminoma with cryptorchidism revealed by a giant abdominopelvic mass].
 

Author(s): Yassine Rhannam, Imad Ziouziou, Jihad El Ghanmi, Tarik Karmouni, Khalid El Khader, Abdellatif Koutani, Ahmed Iben Attya Andaloussi

Journal: Tunis Med. 2014 Jul;92(7):514-5.

 

Last Updated: 17 Mar 2015

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Syndrome of Spigelian hernia and cryptorchidism: new evidence pertinent to pathogenic hypothesis.
 

Author(s): Ufuk Ates, Gonul Kucuk, Gulnur Gollu, Aydin Yagmurlu

Journal:

 

Last Updated: 23 Feb 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 17 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
 

Author(s): Lin Zhang, Xing-Huan Wang, Xin-Min Zheng, Tong-Zu Liu, Wei-Bin Zhang, Hang Zheng, Mi-Feng Chen

Journal:

 

Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.

Last Updated: 24 Mar 2015

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Effectiveness of hormonal and surgical therapies for cryptorchidism: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): David Penson, Shanthi Krishnaswami, Astride Jules, Melissa L McPheeters

Journal: Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):e1897-907.

 

Controversy remains concerning the optimal treatment approach for cryptorchidism. The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness of hormone therapy or surgery for cryptorchidism.

Last Updated: 4 Jun 2013

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Cryptorchidism and endocrine disrupting chemicals.
 

Author(s): Helena E Virtanen, Annika Adamsson

Journal: Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.. 2012 May;355(2):208-20.

 

Prospective clinical studies have suggested that the rate of congenital cryptorchidism has increased since the 1950s. It has been hypothesized that this may be related to environmental factors. Testicular descent occurs in two phases controlled by Leydig cell-derived hormones insulin-like ...

Last Updated: 11 Apr 2012

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

The Incidence of Congenital Undescended Testis Among Dutch Infants
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Undescended Testis

 

Last Updated: 21 May 2008

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Orchidopexy Randomized Clinical Assessment
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Unilateral Cryptorchidism

 

Last Updated: 7 Feb 2016

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Visual Guidelines and Tutoring in Pediatric Urological Surgery
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hypospadias; Undescended Testis; Hydrocele; Ureteropelvic Junction Stenosis; Anxiety

 

Last Updated: 19 Nov 2014

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