Cryptorchidism

Common Name(s)

Cryptorchidism, Undescended testes

Undescended testes, or cryptorchidism, is a condition in which one testis or both testes (or testicles) does not descend from the abdomen into the scrotum by the time of birth. The scrotum is the sac of skin beneath the penis and is the proper location of the testes. This condition is more common among baby boys who are born prematurely, or before 37 weeks of pregnancy. This is a common condition that affects about 30% of premature and 4% of full term male births. Other risk factors for undescended testes are a low birth weight, a family history of undescended testes, having a mother affected by diabetes or obesity, and having a mother who smoked or used alcohol during pregnancy.

During development in the womb, the testes will naturally descend from the abdomen to the scrotum through a tube-like structure called the inguinal canal. If the testes fail to descend, they may be located in the abdomen or in the canal, or they may be completely absent. In a male who is born with only one testicle or with no testicles in the scrotum, it is most common for the testes to be undescended testes and to be located in the inguinal canal. Undescended testes may increase the risk for testicular cancer, and having two undescended testes may affect fertility. This condition can be diagnosed by a doctor by a physical examination.

The goal of treatment for undescended testes is to get the testis or testes to move into the scrotum. Sometimes this may happen naturally, usually by the time the boy reaches 9 months of age, or a doctor may be able to help. If the testes do not descend by 9 months of age, they can be relocated by a minor surgery known as orchiopexy. If your son has been diagnosed with undescended testes, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Cryptorchidism" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 162 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Genomic copy number variation association study in Caucasian patients with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism.
 

Author(s): Yanping Wang, Jin Li, Thomas F Kolon, Alicia Olivant Fisher, T Ernesto Figueroa, Ahmad H BaniHani, Jennifer A Hagerty, Ricardo Gonzalez, Paul H Noh, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Kisha R Harden, Debra J Abrams, Deborah Stabley, Cecilia E Kim, Katia Sol-Church, Hakon Hakonarson, Marcella Devoto, Julia Spencer Barthold

Journal:

 

Copy number variation (CNV) is a potential contributing factor to many genetic diseases. Here we investigated the potential association of CNV with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, the most common male congenital genitourinary defect, in a Caucasian population.

Last Updated: 22 Oct 2016

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Can Hypertrophy of the Contralateral Testis Predict the Absence of a Viable Testis in Infancy with Cryptorchidism: A Prospective Analysis.
 

Author(s): Hee Seo Son, Yong Seung Lee, Young Jae Im, Sang Woon Kim, Byung Hoon Chi, Sang Won Han

Journal:

 

This prospective study aimed to evaluate whether Contralateral compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) is valid as a predictive tool for a non-viable testis in children aged between 6 and 18 months, and whether CTH is affected by mini-puberty. Seventy-two testes from 60 boys aged ...

Last Updated: 19 Mar 2016

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Ethnic patterns of hypospadias in New Zealand do not resemble those observed for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: evidence of differential aetiology?
 

Author(s): J K Gurney, J Stanley, C Shaw, D Sarfati

Journal: Andrology. 2016 Jan;4(1):82-6.

 

It has been proposed that hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality and testicular cancer might share common prenatal causes. We have previously demonstrated similar ethnic patterns for the incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism - a known risk factor for testicular ...

Last Updated: 19 Jan 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 15 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Opinion: Comment on Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism: AUA/AAP and Nordic Consensus Guidelines.
 

Author(s): Faruk Hadziselimovic

Journal: Urol. Int.. 2016 ;96(3):249-54.

 

The ultimate goal in the treatment of cryptorchidism is to achieve normal fertility. However, in a substantial number of cryptorchid males, early and apparently successful orchidopexy does not improve fertility as it does not address the underlying pathophysiological cause, namely, ...

Last Updated: 5 Apr 2016

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Molecular Pathology of Cryptorchidism-Induced Infertility.
 

Author(s): Maria José Docampo, Faruk Hadziselimovic

Journal: Sex Dev. 2015 ;9(5):269-78.

 

Cryptorchidism is the most common cause of non-obstructive azoospermia in man. In contrast to the general belief that temperature-dependent effects on the undescended gonad damage cryptorchid testes before sexual maturation is complete, molecular pathology strongly supports the theory ...

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2016

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Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
 

Author(s): Lin Zhang, Xing-Huan Wang, Xin-Min Zheng, Tong-Zu Liu, Wei-Bin Zhang, Hang Zheng, Mi-Feng Chen

Journal:

 

Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.

Last Updated: 24 Mar 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Orchidopexy Randomized Clinical Assessment
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Unilateral Cryptorchidism

 

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2017

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One Stage vs. Two Stage Gubernaculum Sparing Laparoscopic Orchidopexy (GSLO)
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptorchidism

 

Last Updated: 21 Mar 2017

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Comparison Between the Clinical Assessment of the Undescended Testis and Its' Ultrasonographic Size
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Comparing the Difference Between the Manual and the Ultrasonographically Evaluation of the Undescended Testicular Size

 

Last Updated: 4 Apr 2016

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