Tularemia

Common Name(s)

Tularemia

Tularemia is a rare bacterial infection caused by Francisella tularensis. The bacteria naturally infects rodents, rabbits, hares and other wild animals and birds. Humans can become infected with tularemia by touching a sick or dead infected animal, drinking water contaminated by an infected animal, and being bitten by an infected insect (most often ticks). The bacteria may also become airborne if for instance farm or grass mowing machinery runs over an infected dead animal.

People living in or visiting areas with lots of ticks are more at risk. Others at an increased risk include those likely to come into contact with infected animals or soil, such as hunters, farmers, landscapers and gardeners. Tularemia cases occur more often in rural areas. Tularemia cannot be passed from person to person. Worldwide, tularemia can be found in North America, Europe, and northern Asia.

Symptoms of tularemia appear one to fourteen days after infection. The bacteria may enter the human body through the skin, eyes, nose, throat or lungs. Symptoms depend on how the bacteria entered the body but in general may include sudden fever, chills, headaches, diarrhea, muscle and joint pain, dry cough and progressive weakness. Other symptoms may include ulcers on the skin or mouth, swollen and painful lymph glands, swollen and painful eyes, and a sore throat. If pneumonia develops, the person may develop chest pain, a hard cough and have difficulty breathing.

Tularemia can be diagnosed with blood tests while X-rays can be used to check for pneumonia. Tularemia may be fatal if not treated. The correct antibiotic must be used for successful treatment. If you have been diagnosed with tularemia, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Tularemia" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Tularemia" returned 170 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.
 

Author(s): Sivakumar Periasamy, Dorina Avram, Amanda McCabe, Katherine C MacNamara, Timothy J Sellati, Jonathan A Harton

Journal:

 

Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary ...

Last Updated: 26 Mar 2016

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Notes from the Field: Increase in Human Cases of Tularemia--Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, January-September 2015.
 

Author(s): Caitlin Pedati, Jennifer House, Jessica Hancock-Allen, Leah Colton, Katie Bryan, Dustin Ortbahn, Lon Kightlinger, Kiersten Kugeler, Jeannine Petersen, Paul Mead, Tom Safranek, Bryan Buss

Journal:

 

Tularemia is a rare, often serious disease caused by a gram-negative coccobacillus, Francisella tularensis, which infects humans and animals in the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 125 cases have been reported annually in the United States during the last two decades. As of September ...

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July-September 2013.
 

Author(s): Dilber Aktas, Bekir Celebi, Mehmet Emirhan Isik, Celal Tutus, Huseyin Ozturk, Fehminaz Temel, Mecit Kizilaslan, Bao-Ping Zhu

Journal: Emerging Infect. Dis.. 2015 Dec;21(12):2194-6.

 

In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated ...

Last Updated: 20 Nov 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Tularemia" returned 14 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?
 

Author(s): Lee-Ann H Allen

Journal:

 

The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. ...

Last Updated: 10 Jan 2014

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Immunotherapy for tularemia.
 

Author(s): Jerod A Skyberg

Journal: Virulence. 2013 Nov;4(8):859-70.

 

Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (> 30%). In ...

Last Updated: 31 Jan 2014

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Live attenuated tularemia vaccines: recent developments and future goals.
 

Author(s): Mark E Marohn, Eileen M Barry

Journal: Vaccine. 2013 Aug;31(35):3485-91.

 

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax attacks in the U.S., numerous efforts were made to increase the level of preparedness against a biological attack both in the US and worldwide. As a result, there has been an increase in research interest in the development of vaccines and other ...

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2013

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Pharmacokinetics of Understudied Drugs Administered to Children Per Standard of Care
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Infection; Hypertension; Pain; Reflux; Edema; Hyperlipidemia; Hypotension; Hypercholesterolemia; Sedation; Anxiolysis; Benzodiazepine Withdrawal; Bipolar Disorder; Autistic Disorder; Schizophrenia; Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis; Acute Decompensated Heart Failure; Stable Angina; Life-threatening Fungal Infections; Nosocomial Pneumonia; Community Acquired Pneumonia; Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis; Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections; Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections; Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis; Complicated Urinary Tract Infections; Acute Pyelonephritis; Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections; Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure); Infantile Hemangioma; Withdrawal; Inflammation; Bacterial Septicemia; Cytomegalovirus Retinitis; Herpes Simplex Virus; Adenovirus; Brain Swelling; Airway Swelling; Adrenal Insufficiency; Anxiety; Nausea; Vomiting; Convulsions; Muscle Spasms; Seizures; Epilepsy; Bartonellosis; Brucellosis; Cholera; Plague; Psittacosis; Q Fever; Relapsing Fever; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; Trachoma; Tularemia; Typhus Fever; Bronchospasm; Cardiac Arrest; Hypersensitivity Reaction; Cyanide Poisoning; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis; Bacterial Meningitis; Sepsis; Gastroparesis; Opioid Addiction; Migraines; Headaches

 

Last Updated: 4 Feb 2016

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