Tourette syndrome

Common Name(s)

Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder that causes uncontrollable body movements and sounds, called tics. Tics can vary from simple to complex. Simple tics tend to be sudden, short, less noticeable, and less frequent. Complex tics are frequent, obvious, and get in the way of communication and daily tasks. Tic types affect both movement (motor tics) and sound (vocal tics). Motor tics can cause an affected person to have repetitive eye blinking, eye twitching, shoulder shrugging, head jerking, jumping, hopping, or touching. More severe motor tics can include self-harm movements, like punching or hitting. Vocal tics can include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, snorting, barking, grunting, and yelling, as well as repetitive words or phrases. Severe vocal tics include yelling inappropriate words, such as swearing (coprolalia), and repeating words or phrases of other people (echolalia). Some people with TS can have uncontrollable movements (spasms) of the vocal cords while speaking (spasmodic dysphonia). People with TS can also have other behavioral issues, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

The typical age of onset for TS is between 2 and 12 years. All ethnic groups can be affected, but males are affected more often than females. A family history of TS is also a risk factor. The exact cause of TS is unknown, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. TS is usually diagnosed by a health professional who is trained in diagnosing mental health conditions, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) are used to diagnose TS. Currently there is no cure for TS, but treatments to help address symptoms include both medications and therapies. If your child has been diagnosed with TS, talk to their doctor about the most current treatment options and support groups.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Tourette syndrome" for support, advocacy or research.

International OCD Foundation

Founded by a group of people with OCD in 1986, the International OCD Foundation (IOCDF) is an international not-for-profit organization made up of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and related disorders, as well as their families, friends, professionals and others. The mission and goals of the IOCDF are to: Educate the public and professionals about OCD in order to raise awareness and improve the quality of treatment provided; Support research into the cause of, and effective treatments for, OCD and related disorders; Improve access to resources for those with OCD and their fam

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2013

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.

Founded in 1972, TSA is the only national voluntary non-profit membership organization whose mission is to identify the cause, find the cure and control the effects of Tourette Syndrome through education, research and service.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Tourette syndrome" for support, advocacy or research.

International OCD Foundation

Founded by a group of people with OCD in 1986, the International OCD Foundation (IOCDF) is an international not-for-profit organization made up of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and related disorders, as well as their families, friends, professionals and others. The mission and goals of the IOCDF are to: Educate the public and professionals about OCD in order to raise awareness and improve the quality of treatment provided; Support research into the cause of, and effective treatments for, OCD and related disorders; Improve access to resources for those with OCD and their fam

http://www.ocfoundation.org

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2013

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

http://www.pediatricbrainfoundation.org

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.

Founded in 1972, TSA is the only national voluntary non-profit membership organization whose mission is to identify the cause, find the cure and control the effects of Tourette Syndrome through education, research and service.

http://tsa-usa.org

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Tourette syndrome" returned 209 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Lifetime prevalence, age of risk, and genetic relationships of comorbid psychiatric disorders in Tourette syndrome.
 

Author(s): Matthew E Hirschtritt, Paul C Lee, David L Pauls, Yves Dion, Marco A Grados, Cornelia Illmann, Robert A King, Paul Sandor, William M McMahon, Gholson J Lyon, Danielle C Cath, Roger Kurlan, Mary M Robertson, Lisa Osiecki, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews,

Journal: JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;72(4):325-33.

 

Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each ...

Last Updated: 2 Apr 2015

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[Treatment of Tourette syndrome by tomoxetine hydrochloride in older children].
 

Author(s): Ming-Xia Liu, Yi Zhou, Tong Xu

Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2014 Nov;16(11):1162-4.

 

Last Updated: 21 Nov 2014

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Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
 

Author(s): Yulia Worbe, Linda Marrakchi-Kacem, Sophie Lecomte, Romain Valabregue, Fabrice Poupon, Pamela Guevara, Alan Tucholka, Jean-Fran├žois Mangin, Marie Vidailhet, Stephane Lehericy, Andreas Hartmann, Cyril Poupon

Journal: Brain. 2015 Feb;138(Pt 2):472-82.

 

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological ...

Last Updated: 28 Jan 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Tourette syndrome" returned 30 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Prenatal risk factors for Tourette Syndrome: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): Ting-Kuang Chao, Jing Hu, Tamara Pringsheim

Journal:

 

Tourette Syndrome (TS) appears to be an inherited disorder, although genetic abnormalities have been identified in less than 1% of patients, and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. Many studies have investigated environmental factors that might contribute to the onset and severity ...

Last Updated: 11 Feb 2014

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Genetic susceptibility and neurotransmitters in Tourette syndrome.
 

Author(s): Peristera Paschou, Thomas V Fernandez, Frank Sharp, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra

Journal: Int. Rev. Neurobiol.. 2013 ;112():155-77.

 

Family studies have consistently shown that Tourette syndrome (TS) is a familial disorder and twin studies have clearly indicated a genetic contribution in the etiology of TS. Whereas early segregation studies of TS suggested a single-gene autosomal dominant disorder, later studies ...

Last Updated: 3 Dec 2013

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The effectiveness of habit reversal therapy in the treatment of Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): Neeladri Dutta, Andrea E Cavanna

Journal: Funct. Neurol.. ;28(1):7-12.

 

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics, which can require active intervention. It is recognized that behavioral techniques, especially habit reversal therapy (HRT), can offer an effective alternative or complement to pharmacotherapy ...

Last Updated: 4 Jun 2013

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Tourette Syndrome Deep Brain Stimulation
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 5 Jun 2015

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MRI Study of Tic Remission in Tourette Syndrome
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 1 Jun 2012

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Sensory Processing in Tourette Syndrome
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 24 Aug 2015

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