Tourette syndrome

Common Name(s)

Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder that causes uncontrollable body movements and sounds, called tics. Tics can vary from simple to complex. Simple tics tend to be sudden, short, less noticeable, and less frequent. Complex tics are frequent, obvious, and get in the way of communication and daily tasks. Tic types affect both movement (motor tics) and sound (vocal tics). Motor tics can cause an affected person to have repetitive eye blinking, eye twitching, shoulder shrugging, head jerking, jumping, hopping, or touching. More severe motor tics can include self-harm movements, like punching or hitting. Vocal tics can include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, snorting, barking, grunting, and yelling, as well as repetitive words or phrases. Severe vocal tics include yelling inappropriate words, such as swearing (coprolalia), and repeating words or phrases of other people (echolalia). Some people with TS can have uncontrollable movements (spasms) of the vocal cords while speaking (spasmodic dysphonia). People with TS can also have other behavioral issues, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

The typical age of onset for TS is between 2 and 12 years. All ethnic groups can be affected, but males are affected more often than females. A family history of TS is also a risk factor. The exact cause of TS is unknown, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. TS is usually diagnosed by a health professional who is trained in diagnosing mental health conditions, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) are used to diagnose TS. Currently there is no cure for TS, but treatments to help address symptoms include both medications and therapies. If your child has been diagnosed with TS, talk to their doctor about the most current treatment options and support groups.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Tourette syndrome" for support, advocacy or research.

International OCD Foundation

Founded by a group of people with OCD in 1986, the International OCD Foundation (IOCDF) is an international not-for-profit organization made up of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and related disorders, as well as their families, friends, professionals and others. The mission and goals of the IOCDF are to: Educate the public and professionals about OCD in order to raise awareness and improve the quality of treatment provided; Support research into the cause of, and effective treatments for, OCD and related disorders; Improve access to resources for those with OCD and their fam

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2013

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.

Founded in 1972, TSA is the only national voluntary non-profit membership organization whose mission is to identify the cause, find the cure and control the effects of Tourette Syndrome through education, research and service.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Tourette syndrome" for support, advocacy or research.

International OCD Foundation

Founded by a group of people with OCD in 1986, the International OCD Foundation (IOCDF) is an international not-for-profit organization made up of people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and related disorders, as well as their families, friends, professionals and others. The mission and goals of the IOCDF are to: Educate the public and professionals about OCD in order to raise awareness and improve the quality of treatment provided; Support research into the cause of, and effective treatments for, OCD and related disorders; Improve access to resources for those with OCD and their fam

http://www.ocfoundation.org

Last Updated: 19 Feb 2013

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

View Details
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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

http://www.pediatricbrainfoundation.org

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.

Founded in 1972, TSA is the only national voluntary non-profit membership organization whose mission is to identify the cause, find the cure and control the effects of Tourette Syndrome through education, research and service.

http://tsa-usa.org

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Tourette syndrome" returned 278 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Abnormal lateralization of fine motor actions in Tourette syndrome persists into adulthood.
 

Author(s): D Martino, C Delorme, E Pelosin, A Hartmann, Y Worbe, L Avanzino

Journal:

 

Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system produce motor tics in Tourette syndrome.
 

Author(s): Daniele Caligiore, Francesco Mannella, Michael A Arbib, Gianluca Baldassarre

Journal:

 

Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulated view where cerebellum and cortex, working closely in concert with basal ganglia, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Tourette syndrome in the context of evolution and behavioral ecology.
 

Author(s): Jared Edward Reser

Journal: Med. Hypotheses. 2017 Feb;99():35-39.

 

Tourette syndrome, and the closely related spectrum of tic disorders, are inherited neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped movements. Tics are elicited by either environmental experiences or internal signals that instruct the basal ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Tourette syndrome" returned 53 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS.
 

Author(s): Luciana Frick, Christopher Pittenger

Journal: J Immunol Res. 2016 ;2016():8606057.

 

There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The mechanistic details of ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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[Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].
 

Author(s): Dilek √únal, Devrim Akdemir

Journal: Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2016 ;27(4):275-285.

 

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders on quality of life across the lifespan: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): Joel Evans, Stefano Seri, Andrea E Cavanna

Journal: Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;25(9):939-48.

 

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and other chronic tic disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by the presence of tics and associated behavioral problems. Whilst converging evidence indicates that these conditions can affect patients' quality of life (QoL), the ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

The Pathophysiology of Tourette Syndrome: a Multimodal Study
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 26 Apr 2016

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Children With Tourette's Syndrome
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 24 Oct 2017

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The Effect and Safety of Plum-blossom Needle for Tourette Syndrome
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Tourette Syndrome

 

Last Updated: 7 May 2016

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