Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 2715 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Meningococcal disease control in countries of the African meningitis belt, 2014.
 

Author(s):

Journal: Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec.. 2015 Mar;90(13):123-31.

 

Last Updated: 27 Mar 2015

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Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil.
 

Author(s): Indianara Maria Grando, Camile de Moraes, Brendan Flannery, Walter Massa Ramalho, Marco Aurélio P Horta, Diana Lucia Moura Pinho, Gilmara Lima Nascimento

Journal: Cad Saude Publica. 2015 Feb;31(2):276-84.

 

The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from ...

Last Updated: 12 Mar 2015

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Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an immunocompromised patient.
 

Author(s): Simone Barocci, Alessio Mancini, Benedetta Canovari, Enzo Petrelli, Emanuela Sbriscia-Fioretti, Alberto Licci, Simona D'Addesa, Giancarlo Petrini, Marinella Giacomini, Antonella Renzi, Antonio Migali, Sara Briscolini

Journal: New Microbiol.. 2015 Jan;38(1):113-8.

 

This report describes a case of meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a stem cell transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy for cutaneous chronic graft-versus host disease. A 59-year-old woman had undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (from a matched unrelated ...

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 183 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Myelomatous meningitis evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry : report of a case and review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Alessandra Marini, Giovanni Carulli, Tiziana Lari, Gabriele Buda, Paola Lambelet, Eugenio M Ciancia, Edoardo Benedetti, Francesco Caracciolo, Maria Immacolata Ferreri, Ilaria Pesaresi, Martina Rousseau, Virginia Ottaviano, Antonio Azzarà, Mario Petrini

Journal: J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014 ;54(2):129-36.

 

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. Among its possible presentations, leptomeningeal involvement of MM, also termed central nervous system myelomatosis (CNS-MM) is rare and is characterized by the presence of neoplastic plasma cells in the ...

Last Updated: 16 Oct 2014

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Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.
 

Author(s): Jennifer A Veltman, Claire C Bristow, Jeffrey D Klausner

Journal:

 

Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population.

Last Updated: 13 Oct 2014

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The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): Stephanie Davis, Daniel Feikin, Hope L Johnson

Journal: BMC Public Health. 2013 ;13 Suppl 3():S21.

 

Two of the most prevalent causes of severe bacterial meningitis in children, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are preventable by existing vaccines increasingly available in developing countries. Our objective was to estimate the dose-specific effect ...

Last Updated: 25 Feb 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis; Fungal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 28 Jul 2015

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High-Dose Fluconazole for the Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV-Infected Individuals
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 7 May 2015

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Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 8 May 2014

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