Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 3245 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Chemotherapy for Tuberculous Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Peter R Donald

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Jan;374(2):179-81.

 

Last Updated: 14 Jan 2016

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Intensified Antituberculosis Therapy in Adults with Tuberculous Meningitis.
 

Author(s): A Dorothee Heemskerk, Nguyen D Bang, Nguyen T H Mai, Tran T H Chau, Nguyen H Phu, Pham P Loc, Nguyen V V Chau, Tran T Hien, Nguyen H Dung, Nguyen T N Lan, Nguyen H Lan, Nguyen N Lan, Le T Phong, Nguyen N Vien, Nguyen Q Hien, Nguyen T B Yen, Dang T M Ha, Jeremy N Day, Maxine Caws, Laura Merson, Tran T V Thinh, Marcel Wolbers, Guy E Thwaites, Jeremy J Farrar

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2016 Jan;374(2):124-34.

 

Tuberculous meningitis is often lethal. Early antituberculosis treatment and adjunctive treatment with glucocorticoids improve survival, but nearly one third of patients with the condition still die. We hypothesized that intensified antituberculosis treatment would enhance the killing ...

Last Updated: 14 Jan 2016

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Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.
 

Author(s): Yoav Y Pikkel, Tamir Ben-Hur, Ruth Eliahou, Asaf Honig

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2015 Nov;17(11):697-702.

 

Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality.

Last Updated: 13 Jan 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 206 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Streptococcus suis Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Anusha van Samkar, Matthijs C Brouwer, Constance Schultsz, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek

Journal:

 

Streptococcus suis is the most common cause of meningitis in pork consuming and pig rearing countries in South-East Asia. We performed a systematic review of studies on S. suis meningitis to define the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome.

Last Updated: 28 Oct 2015

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LATERAL FLOW ASSAY FOR CRYPTOCOCCAL ANTIGEN: AN IMPORTANT ADVANCE TO IMPROVE THE CONTINUUM OF HIV CARE AND REDUCE CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS-RELATED MORTALITY.
 

Author(s): Jose E Vidal, David R Boulware

Journal: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 2015 Sep;57 Suppl 19():38-45.

 

AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis continues to cause a substantial burden of death in low and middle income countries. The diagnostic use for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen (CrAg) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by latex agglutination test (CrAg-latex) ...

Last Updated: 15 Oct 2015

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Management of neoplastic meningitis.
 

Author(s): Patrick Roth, Michael Weller

Journal: Chin Clin Oncol. 2015 Jun;4(2):26.

 

Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most ...

Last Updated: 26 Jun 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis; Fungal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2015

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High-Dose Fluconazole for the Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV-Infected Individuals
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis; HIV Infections

 

Last Updated: 6 Jan 2016

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Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 8 May 2014

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