Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 3331 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Etiology of bacterial meningitis: a cross-sectional study among patients admitted in a semi-urban hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
 

Author(s): Charles Njonjo Gituro, Andrew Nyerere, Musa Otieno Ngayo, Edward Maina, Jane Githuku, Waqo Boru

Journal:

 

bacterial meningitis, responsible for childhood morbidity and mortality, can also lead to permanent neurological disability among survivors. This study conducted from January to December, 2015 used standard bacteriological and molecular methods to investigate the etiology of three ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Coxsackievirus B5 Aseptic Meningitis in Infants in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in 2016.
 

Author(s): Kanae Tsuno, Chiharu Miyatake, Haruna Nishijima, Chiemi Hotta, Tomoko Ogawa, Takeshi Asano

Journal: J Nippon Med Sch. 2018 ;85(3):187-190.

 

Infantile aseptic meningitis is a rare infection of the central nervous system. Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) is an enterovirus that is sometimes associated with aseptic meningitis and encephalitis.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Cryptococcal meningitis epidemiology: 17 years of experience in a State of the Brazilian Pantanal.
 

Author(s): Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Rosianne Assis de Sousa Tsujisaki, Maína de Oliveira Nunes, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang

Journal: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.. ;51(4):485-492.

 

This study aimed to describe cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases and the associated demographic, clinical, and microbiological data obtained from cities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Midwestern region of Brazil.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 233 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Staphylococcus epidermidis meningitis in the absence of a neurosurgical device secondary to catheter-related bloodstream infection: a case report and review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toshiyuki Kitano, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Satoshi Ichiyama

Journal:

 

Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause nosocomial meningitis in the presence of prosthetic devices. We describe a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis meningitis in a patient with neutropenia who had no intracranial foreign body, and we review the literature on meningitis that is caused ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis.
 

Author(s): Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner

Journal:

 

Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Unexpected Ventriculitis Complication of Neonatal Meningitis Caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus Subsp. pasteurianus: a Case Report.
 

Author(s): Yoshiko Yamamura, Yuka Mihara, Keigo Nakatani, Toshihiro Nishiguchi, Tadayoshi Ikebe

Journal: Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.. 2018 Jan;71(1):68-71.

 

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously recognized as S. bovis biotype II/2, is an uncommon yet important cause of invasive infection in young infants. Here, we report the first case of ventriculitis that was unexpectedly diagnosed in the course of neonatal meningitis ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjunction of Daptomycin for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Pneumococcal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 29 Jun 2018

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Ciprofloxacin for the Prevention of Meningococcal Meningitis 2018
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis, Meningococcal

 

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2018

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Role of CSF-CRPand Serum Procalcitonin in Differentiation Between Bacterial and Viral Meningitis in Children
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis in Children

 

Last Updated: 24 Dec 2017

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