Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 3319 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[A visualization study of research papers on childhood tuberculous meningitis in China and abroad over the past decade].
 

Author(s): Jing Gan, Shao-Lin Ye, Rong Luo, De-Zhi Mu, Chao-Min Wan

Journal: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2016 May;18(5):415-20.

 

To introduce co-word analysis into the analysis of the current research status of childhood tuberculous meningitis, to compare the similarities and differences in research topics of the field in China and abroad over the past decade, and to discover the advantages and weak links in ...

Last Updated: 11 May 2016

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Meningitis control in countries of the African meningitis belt, 2015.
 

Author(s):

Journal: Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec.. 2016 Apr;91(16):209-16.

 

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2016

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Clinical Value of Assessing Cytokine Levels for the Differential Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis in a Pediatric Population.
 

Author(s): Qing Ye, Wen-Xia Shao, Shi-Qiang Shang, Hong-Qiang Shen, Xue-Jun Chen, Yong-Min Tang, Yong-Lin Yu, Jian-Hua Mao

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Mar;95(13):e3222.

 

We performed a prospective observational study to evaluate the utility of measuring inflammatory cytokine levels to discriminate bacterial meningitis from similar common pediatric diseases. Inflammatory cytokine levels and other cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physicochemical indicators ...

Last Updated: 5 Apr 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 212 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis.
 

Author(s): Kameshwar Prasad, Mamta B Singh, Hannah Ryan

Journal:

 

Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs ...

Last Updated: 2 May 2016

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
 

Author(s): Ting-Ting Wei, Zhi-De Hu, Bao-Dong Qin, Ning Ma, Qing-Qin Tang, Li-Li Wang, Lin Zhou, Ren-Qian Zhong

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Mar;95(11):e3079.

 

Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker ...

Last Updated: 18 Mar 2016

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Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.
 

Author(s): Anusha van Samkar, Matthijs C Brouwer, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Feb;95(8):e2858.

 

The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults.We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial ...

Last Updated: 4 Mar 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis; Fungal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 10 May 2016

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Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptococcal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 8 May 2014

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Last Updated: 19 Dec 2012

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