Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 3225 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Antifungal Combinations for Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Africa.
 

Author(s): Síle F Molloy, Cecilia Kanyama, Robert S Heyderman, Angela Loyse, Charles Kouanfack, Duncan Chanda, Sayoki Mfinanga, Elvis Temfack, Shabir Lakhi, Sokoine Lesikari, Adrienne K Chan, Neil Stone, Newton Kalata, Natasha Karunaharan, Kate Gaskell, Mary Peirse, Jayne Ellis, Chimwemwe Chawinga, Sandrine Lontsi, Jean-Gilbert Ndong, Philip Bright, Duncan Lupiya, Tao Chen, John Bradley, Jack Adams, Charles van der Horst, Joep J van Oosterhout, Victor Sini, Yacouba N Mapoure, Peter Mwaba, Tihana Bicanic, David G Lalloo, Duolao Wang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Olivier Lortholary, Shabbar Jaffar, Thomas S Harrison,

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2018 03;378(11):1004-1017.

 

Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for more than 100,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths per year. We tested two treatment strategies that could be more sustainable in Africa than the standard of 2 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytosine and more effective than the ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Performance of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, and urine in HIV-infected patients with culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a Brazilian referral center.
 

Author(s): José E Vidal, Carolina Toniolo, Adriana Paulino, Arnaldo L Colombo, Marilena Dos Anjos Martins, Cristina da Silva Meira, Renata Guise Soares Azevedo, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Hélio Rodrigues Gomes, Marcia Dos Santos Lazera, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, David R Boulware

Journal: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 2018 ;60():e1.

 

Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common cause of opportunistic meningitis in HIV-infected patients in Brazil and causes unacceptable high mortality rates. In this study, HIV-infected patients with a first episode of culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The first case report of Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in neonate: A literature review.
 

Author(s): Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Feb;97(7):e9875.

 

Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 224 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis.
 

Author(s): Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner

Journal:

 

Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Sporadic isolated congenital asplenia with fulminant pneumococcal meningitis: a case report and updated literature review.
 

Author(s): Shigeo Iijima

Journal:

 

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is a rare and life-threatening condition that predisposes patients to severe bacterial infections. Most of the reported cases are familial and the mode of inheritance is usually autosomal dominant. Here, we report a case of sporadic isolated asplenia ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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[Rare and severe complication of spinal anesthesia: bacterial meningitis (about a case and literature review)].
 

Author(s): Naoufal Chouaib, Said Jidane, Mostafa Rafai, Ahmed Belkouch, Saad Zidouh, Lahcen Belyamani

Journal:

 

Spinal anesthesia (SA) is the first locoregional anesthesia. It can cause side effects and carry risks that need to be avoided, prevented or treated early. We here report the case of a female patient operated under spinal anesthesia who had intense headache associated with nausea ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjunction of Daptomycin for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Pneumococcal Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 21 Mar 2018

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Ciprofloxacin for the Prevention of Meningococcal Meningitis 2018
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis, Meningococcal

 

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2018

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Daptomycin in Pediatric Patients With Bacterial Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 7 Jun 2017

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