Splenomegaly

Common Name(s)

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a condition in which an individual’s spleen is larger than normal. The spleen is an organ located in the left upper abdomen that filters red blood cells and helps protect the body against certain types of infections. An enlarged spleen is generally caused by infection, blood diseases, liver disease, or cancer. People at the highest risk of experiencing splenomegaly are those who have an active infection, have a metabolic disorder affecting the spleen or liver, or are exposed to malaria. The spleen of an affected individual may be felt by palpation during a physical examination. After splenomegaly is diagnosed, medical imaging and blood tests are often performed to help determine the cause and direct any treatment.

Individuals affected by splenomegaly may experience abdominal pain on the upper left side of the abdomen, hiccups, and difficulty eating large meals. Other symptoms include fatigue, more frequent bleeding, and repeated infections. Individuals with splenomegaly will often also have anemia, or a low number of circulating red blood cells. When the spleen is enlarged, healthy red blood cells are filtered in addition to old red blood cells. This decreases the number of healthy red blood cells in the bloodstream. If the spleen becomes too large, parts of the spleen may not receive enough blood supply and can be damaged. Complications of splenomegaly include severe infection or a ruptured spleen, which can be fatal.

For individuals with an enlarged spleen, physical activity should be avoided to prevent trauma that could lead to rupture. Treatment of splenomegaly will vary based on the cause. Antibiotics are used to treat any ongoing infections or to help prevent additional infections. In severe cases, part or all of the spleen may be surgically removed (splenectomy). If you or your child has been diagnosed with splenomegaly, talk to your doctor about the most appropriate treatment options.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Splenomegaly" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Splenomegaly" returned 213 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Fever of unknown origin and splenomegaly: A case report of blood culture negative endocarditis.
 

Author(s): Maria Livia Burzo, Mariangela Antonelli, Giovanni Pecorini, Angela M R Favuzzi, Raffaele Landolfi, Andrea Flex

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Dec;96(50):e9197.

 

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be determined by different conditions among which infectious diseases represent the main cause.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Splenomegaly - Diagnostic validity, work-up, and underlying causes.
 

Author(s): Emelie Curovic Rotbain, Dennis Lund Hansen, Ove Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Flemming Wibrand, Allan Meldgaard Lund, Henrik Frederiksen

Journal:

 

Our aim was to assess the validity of the ICD-10 code for splenomegaly in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP), as well as to investigate which underlying diseases explained the observed splenomegaly.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Causes of peripheral cytopenia in hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly.
 

Author(s): Yunfu Lv, Wan Yee Lau, Hongfei Wu, XiaoYu Han, Xiaoguang Gong, Ning Liu, Jie Yue, Qingqing Li, YeJuan Li, Jie Deng

Journal: Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 2017 04;242(7):744-749.

 

The clinical data of 183 patients with hepatitic cirrhosis and portal hypertensive splenomegaly complicated by peripheral cytopenia were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the causes of peripheral cytopenia, as well as the proportion of the causes in these patients. All patients ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Splenomegaly" returned 9 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly: a systematic review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Stefania Leoni, Dora Buonfrate, Andrea Angheben, Federico Gobbi, Zeno Bisoffi

Journal:

 

The hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly syndrome (HMS) is a leading cause of massive splenomegaly in malaria-endemic countries. HMS is caused by a chronic antigenic stimulation derived from the malaria parasite. Classic Fakunle's major criteria for case definition are: persistent ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Low-dose splenic irradiation in symptomatic congestive splenomegaly: report of five cases with literature data.
 

Author(s): Frank Bruns, Michael Bremer, Arne Dettmer, Stefan Janssen

Journal:

 

To show effectiveness of low-dose splenic irradiation in symptomatic congestive splenomegaly.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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A huge low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of small bowel mesentery simulating hyper immune splenomegaly syndrome: a case report and review of literature.
 

Author(s): O I Alatise, O A Oke, O O Olaofe, G O Omoniyi-Esan, A R K Adesunkanmi

Journal: Afr Health Sci. 2013 Sep;13(3):736-40.

 

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare non epithelial tumour. It usually arises from the smooth muscles of the extremities. It is, however, occasionally reported to arise from other regions of the body.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

CINC424A2X01B Rollover Protocol
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Splenomegaly

 

Last Updated: 2 Feb 2018

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The Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis in the Emergency Department
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Infectious Mononucleosis; Splenomegaly

 

Last Updated: 2 Mar 2018

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Single-Arm Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Rigosertib in Patients With Myelofibrosis (MF) and Anemia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Anemia; Splenomegaly

 

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2017

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