Smallpox

Common Name(s)

Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by the variola viruses. The virus was present in the small blood vessels of the skin, mouth, and throat. Variola major caused a more aggressive disease while variola minor's smallpox was less dangerous. Smallpox produced a rash and then raised fluid-filled blisters on the skin as the disease progressed. The mortality rate for variola major was approximately 30-60% in all people, and 80% in children. Variola minor only caused deaths in 1% of its hosts. The World Health Organization officially eradicated smallpox in 1977 after a massive vaccine campaign. This means that the variola virus is no longer present in the world. Smallpox is one of only two diseases to be completely eradicated.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Smallpox" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Smallpox" returned 647 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[The journey of the vaccine against smallpox: one expedition, two oceans, three continents, and thousands of children].
 

Author(s): José Tuells, José Luis Duro-Torrijos

Journal: Gac Med Mex. ;151(3):416-25.

 

Spain encouraged, during the Bourbon dynasty, the formation of scientific expeditions, among which was the Royal Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition, an example of biopolitics applied by the state in order to protect health. The expedition went all over the world, using children as a ...

Last Updated: 19 Jun 2015

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Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.
 

Author(s): Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth, Frank von Sonnenburg, Stephan de la Motte, Nathaly Arndtz-Wiedemann, Alfred von Krempelhuber, Nadine Uebler, Jens Vollmar, Garth Virgin, Paul Chaplin

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Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified ...

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2015

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A prospective study of the incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis and new onset cardiac symptoms following smallpox and influenza vaccination.
 

Author(s): Renata J M Engler, Michael R Nelson, Limone C Collins, Christina Spooner, Brian A Hemann, Barnett T Gibbs, J Edwin Atwood, Robin S Howard, Audrey S Chang, Daniel L Cruser, Daniel G Gates, Marina N Vernalis, Marguerite S Lengkeek, Bruce M McClenathan, Allan S Jaffe, Leslie T Cooper, Steve Black, Christopher Carlson, Christopher Wilson, Robert L Davis

Journal:

 

Although myocarditis/pericarditis (MP) has been identified as an adverse event following smallpox vaccine (SPX), the prospective incidence of this reaction and new onset cardiac symptoms, including possible subclinical injury, has not been prospectively defined.

Last Updated: 21 Mar 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Smallpox" returned 49 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The prevention and eradication of smallpox: a commentary on Sloane (1755) 'An account of inoculation'.
 

Author(s): Robin A Weiss, José Esparza

Journal: Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.. 2015 Apr;370(1666):.

 

Sir Hans Sloane's account of inoculation as a means to protect against smallpox followed several earlier articles published in Philosophical Transactions on this procedure. Inoculation (also called 'variolation') involved the introduction of small amounts of infectious material from ...

Last Updated: 9 Mar 2015

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Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.
 

Author(s): Whitney L Simon, Hannah M Salk, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Richard B Kennedy, Gregory A Poland

Journal: Immunotherapy. 2014 ;6(10):1097-112.

 

Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations ...

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2014

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The rediscovery of smallpox.
 

Author(s): C Thèves, P Biagini, E Crubézy

Journal: Clin. Microbiol. Infect.. 2014 Mar;20(3):210-8.

 

Smallpox is an infectious disease that is unique to humans, caused by a poxvirus. It is one of the most lethal of diseases; the virus variant Variola major has a mortality rate of 30%. People surviving this disease have life-long consequences, but also assured immunity. Historically, ...

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Safety Surveillance Study of ACAM2000® Vaccinia Vaccine
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Smallpox

 

Last Updated: 15 Sep 2015

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Tecovirimat (ST-246) Treatment for Orthopox Virus Exposure
 

Status: Available

Condition Summary: Smallpox; Monkeypox

 

Last Updated: 28 Oct 2015

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