Schizophrenia

Common Name(s)

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental illness which affects social behavior and the ability to determine what is real. It is a lifelong, serious illness. Schizophrenia affects people of all genders, races, social classes and cultures. In total, the condition affects about 51 million people worldwide. Types include paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and schizoaffective.

Symptoms may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, poor hygiene and lack of inhibition. Symptoms often begin between the ages of 16 and 25 and may occur earlier in males. Schizophrenia may also cause problems with memory, attention and socialization.

The causes of schizophrenia are poorly understood but are believed to be caused by both genetics and the environment. Several genes when damaged are known to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but more are expected to be found. Other risk factors include exposure to malnutrition or viral infections before birth; heavy, frequent use of marijuana by teens and young adults; and problems with certain brain chemicals or neurotransmitters (dopamine and glutamate). Other factors which affect brain development may also be involved.

Diagnosis is made by examining the symptoms and ruling out other possible causes. Treatment includes antipsychotic medication and medications to help treat anxiety and depression. Group therapy may also be helpful. Treatment is lifelong, but it is often difficult to keep someone with schizophrenia on medications. Self-medication with street drugs is common. Suicide is a real concern. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, talk to your psychiatrist, psychologist or therapist about the most current treatment options. A genetic counselor can help explain risks to other family members. Support groups are also good resources and can connect you with others affected by schizophrenia.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

View Details
Logo
Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Schizophrenia

A brochure for individuals and families discussing symptoms, causes, treatment and recovery supports.

Updated 29 Jan 2013

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 7271 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Higher Dimensional Meta-State Analysis Reveals Reduced Resting fMRI Connectivity Dynamism in Schizophrenia Patients.
 

Author(s): Robyn L Miller, Maziar Yaesoubi, Jessica A Turner, Daniel Mathalon, Adrian Preda, Godfrey Pearlson, Tulay Adali, Vince D Calhoun

Journal:

 

Resting-state functional brain imaging studies of network connectivity have long assumed that functional connections are stationary on the timescale of a typical scan. Interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has emerged only recently. The great hope is that training ...

Last Updated: 17 Mar 2016

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Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden.
 

Author(s): Anna-Clara Hollander, Henrik Dal, Glyn Lewis, Cecilia Magnusson, James B Kirkbride, Christina Dalman

Journal:

 

To determine whether refugees are at elevated risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, relative to non-refugee migrants from similar regions of origin and the Swedish-born population.

Last Updated: 16 Mar 2016

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The TLX-miR-219 cascade regulates neural stem cell proliferation in neurodevelopment and schizophrenia iPSC model.
 

Author(s): Kiyohito Murai, Guoqiang Sun, Peng Ye, E Tian, Su Yang, Qi Cui, Guihua Sun, Daniel Trinh, Olivia Sun, Teresa Hong, Zhexing Wen, Markus Kalkum, Arthur D Riggs, Hongjun Song, Guo-li Ming, Yanhong Shi

Journal:

 

Dysregulated expression of miR-219, a brain-specific microRNA, has been observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia (SCZ). However, its role in normal mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs) and in SCZ pathogenesis remains unknown. We show here that the nuclear receptor ...

Last Updated: 11 Mar 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 1509 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Bjanka Vuksan-Ćusa, Marina Šagud, Iva Radoš

Journal: Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Mar;28(1):30-3.

 

Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from ...

Last Updated: 4 Mar 2016

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Behavioral and emerging pharmacologic treatment options for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Sophia Vinogradov, S Charles Schulz

Journal: J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;77 Suppl 2():12-6.

 

In recent years, the goal of treatment for individuals with schizophrenia has shifted from symptom control to functional recovery. For recovery to occur, the substantial cognitive impairments associated with this disorder must be addressed. Advances in neuroscience have paved the ...

Last Updated: 27 Feb 2016

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Impact of cognitive and social cognitive impairment on functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Michael F Green

Journal: J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;77 Suppl 2():8-11.

 

Schizophrenia is a severely disabling disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The notion of recovery from schizophrenia has recently become a topic of both research and clinical focus. With the advent of antipsychotic medications in the 1950s, many more patients achieved ...

Last Updated: 27 Feb 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Long-acting Risperidone Microspheres in Patients With Schizophrenia or Other Psychotic Disorders When Switching From Typical Antipsychotic (Oral/Depot) or Atypical Oral Other Than Risperidone
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia, Catatonic; Schizophrenia, Disorganized; Schizophrenia, Paranoid; Schizophrenia; Psychotic Disorders

 

Last Updated: 6 Jul 2010

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in Patients With Super Refractory Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Refractory Schizophrenia; Super Refractory Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 27 Jan 2014

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Pregablin for Anxiety-comorbidity in Patients With Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia; Anxiety-comorbidity to Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 4 Jan 2016

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