Schizophrenia

Common Name(s)

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental illness which affects social behavior and the ability to determine what is real. It is a lifelong, serious illness. Schizophrenia affects people of all genders, races, social classes and cultures. In total, the condition affects about 51 million people worldwide. Types include paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and schizoaffective.

Symptoms may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, poor hygiene and lack of inhibition. Symptoms often begin between the ages of 16 and 25 and may occur earlier in males. Schizophrenia may also cause problems with memory, attention and socialization.

The causes of schizophrenia are poorly understood but are believed to be caused by both genetics and the environment. Several genes when damaged are known to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but more are expected to be found. Other risk factors include exposure to malnutrition or viral infections before birth; heavy, frequent use of marijuana by teens and young adults; and problems with certain brain chemicals or neurotransmitters (dopamine and glutamate). Other factors which affect brain development may also be involved.

Diagnosis is made by examining the symptoms and ruling out other possible causes. Treatment includes antipsychotic medication and medications to help treat anxiety and depression. Group therapy may also be helpful. Treatment is lifelong, but it is often difficult to keep someone with schizophrenia on medications. Self-medication with street drugs is common. Suicide is a real concern. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, talk to your psychiatrist, psychologist or therapist about the most current treatment options. A genetic counselor can help explain risks to other family members. Support groups are also good resources and can connect you with others affected by schizophrenia.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

View Details
Logo
Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Schizophrenia

A brochure for individuals and families discussing symptoms, causes, treatment and recovery supports.

Updated 29 Jan 2013

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 6542 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Readmission Patterns and Effectiveness of Transitional Care Among Medicaid Patients With Schizophrenia and Medical Comorbidity.
 

Author(s): Carlos Jackson, Annette DuBard, Marvin Swartz, Amelia Mahan, Jerry McKee, Theo Pikoulas, Kathleen Moran, Mike Lancaster

Journal: N C Med J. ;76(4):219-26.

 

Patients with chronic medical and mental health comorbidities are at increased risk of hospital admission, but little is known about their hospital utilization patterns or whether nurse-directed transitional care interventions have any appreciable impact on future hospitalizations.

Last Updated: 29 Oct 2015

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Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.
 

Author(s): Ljubica Leposavić, Ivana Leposavić, Bijana Šaula-Marojević, Predrag Gavrilović

Journal: Srp Arh Celok Lek. ;143(7-8):391-6.

 

Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous ...

Last Updated: 28 Oct 2015

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Increased Causal Connectivity Related to Anatomical Alterations as Potential Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Changqing Xiao, Miaoyu Yu, Zhikun Zhang, Jianrong Liu, Jian Zhang, Jingping Zhao

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct;94(42):e1493.

 

Anatomical and functional abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit have been observed in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings. However, it remains unclear to the relationship between anatomical and functional abnormalities within this circuit ...

Last Updated: 27 Oct 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 1343 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[The cognitive paradigm in the rehabilitation of schizophrenia - focusing on cognitive remediation].
 

Author(s): Veronika Muth, Támas Gyüre, Enikö Váradi

Journal: Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2015 Sep;17(3):129-40.

 

Neurocognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia and well known to the specialists, concerning researches in Hungary as well. Significance of the topic derives from the fact that according to our present knowledge this is the prime symptom principally affecting everyday ...

Last Updated: 21 Oct 2015

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Auditory dysfunction in schizophrenia: integrating clinical and basic features.
 

Author(s): Daniel C Javitt, Robert A Sweet

Journal: Nat. Rev. Neurosci.. 2015 Sep;16(9):535-50.

 

Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is associated with persistent psychosocial disability in affected individuals. Although studies of schizophrenia have traditionally focused on deficits in higher-order processes such as working memory and executive function, ...

Last Updated: 20 Aug 2015

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Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Hassaan Tohid, Muhammad Faizan, Uzma Faizan

Journal: Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2015 Jul;20(3):213-24.

 

The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that ...

Last Updated: 13 Jul 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Long-acting Risperidone Microspheres in Patients With Schizophrenia or Other Psychotic Disorders When Switching From Typical Antipsychotic (Oral/Depot) or Atypical Oral Other Than Risperidone
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia, Catatonic; Schizophrenia, Disorganized; Schizophrenia, Paranoid; Schizophrenia; Psychotic Disorders

 

Last Updated: 6 Jul 2010

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RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for People With Schizophrenia in Ethiopia)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder; Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophreniform Disorder

 

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2015

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in Patients With Super Refractory Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Refractory Schizophrenia; Super Refractory Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 27 Jan 2014

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