Schizophrenia

Common Name(s)

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental illness which affects social behavior and the ability to determine what is real. It is a lifelong, serious illness. Schizophrenia affects people of all genders, races, social classes and cultures. In total, the condition affects about 51 million people worldwide. Types include paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and schizoaffective.

Symptoms may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, poor hygiene and lack of inhibition. Symptoms often begin between the ages of 16 and 25 and may occur earlier in males. Schizophrenia may also cause problems with memory, attention and socialization.

The causes of schizophrenia are poorly understood but are believed to be caused by both genetics and the environment. Several genes when damaged are known to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but more are expected to be found. Other risk factors include exposure to malnutrition or viral infections before birth; heavy, frequent use of marijuana by teens and young adults; and problems with certain brain chemicals or neurotransmitters (dopamine and glutamate). Other factors which affect brain development may also be involved.

Diagnosis is made by examining the symptoms and ruling out other possible causes. Treatment includes antipsychotic medication and medications to help treat anxiety and depression. Group therapy may also be helpful. Treatment is lifelong, but it is often difficult to keep someone with schizophrenia on medications. Self-medication with street drugs is common. Suicide is a real concern. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, talk to your psychiatrist, psychologist or therapist about the most current treatment options. A genetic counselor can help explain risks to other family members. Support groups are also good resources and can connect you with others affected by schizophrenia.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

View Details
Logo
Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Schizophrenia

A brochure for individuals and families discussing symptoms, causes, treatment and recovery supports.

Updated 29 Jan 2013

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 6900 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Memantine Enhances the Effect of Olanzapine in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.
 

Author(s): Ahmad Fakhri, Sirous Pakseresht, Mohammad Reza Haghdoost, Nasihat Hekmatkhah, Maria Torkashvand, Behnam Ghorbanzadeh

Journal: Acta Med Iran. 2016 Nov;54(11):696-703.

 

Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy ...

Last Updated: 30 Dec 2016

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Estimation of the cool executive function using frontal electroencephalogram signals in first-episode schizophrenia patients.
 

Author(s): Yi Yu, Yun Zhao, Yajing Si, Qiongqiong Ren, Wu Ren, Changqin Jing, Hongxing Zhang

Journal:

 

In schizophrenia, executive dysfunction is the most critical cognitive impairment, and is associated with abnormal neural activities, especially in the frontal lobes. Complexity estimation using electroencephalogram (EEG) recording based on nonlinear dynamics and task performance ...

Last Updated: 25 Nov 2016

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Physical activity preferences of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
 

Author(s): Mehala Subramaniapillai, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Markus Duncan, Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo B Mansur, Gary Remington, Guy Faulkner

Journal:

 

Individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) are at least two times more likely to suffer from metabolic co-morbidities, leading to excessive and premature deaths. In spite of the many physical and mental health benefits of physical activity (PA), individuals with SMI are less physically ...

Last Updated: 13 Jul 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 1310 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The role of C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop, María Lilia López-Narváez, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Alma Genis-Mendoza, Mariela Alpuin-Reyes

Journal:

 

The association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia has been studied though no conclusive outcomes have been attained. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relation between three polymorphisms of the DRD2 ...

Last Updated: 10 Nov 2016

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[Recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia].
 

Author(s): D Muller, F Schirmbeck, L de Haan

Journal: Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2016 ;58(7):529-34.

 

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are common in patients with schizophrenia. Although these symptoms are associated with an unfavourable course of the illness, in many cases they are not recognised or treated. The situation for patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive ...

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2016

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The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Carlo Maj, Alessandra Minelli, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Emilio Sacchetti, Massimo Gennarelli

Journal: Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016 ;14(5):540-50.

 

Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications ...

Last Updated: 14 Jun 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Trial of DMXB-A in Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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The Optimal Treatment for Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2016

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Evaluation Study of New Compounds With Potential Use in Schizophrenia
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 13 Aug 2015

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