Schizophrenia

Common Name(s)

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental illness which affects social behavior and the ability to determine what is real. It is a lifelong, serious illness. Schizophrenia affects people of all genders, races, social classes and cultures. In total, the condition affects about 51 million people worldwide. Types include paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and schizoaffective.

Symptoms may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, poor hygiene and lack of inhibition. Symptoms often begin between the ages of 16 and 25 and may occur earlier in males. Schizophrenia may also cause problems with memory, attention and socialization.

The causes of schizophrenia are poorly understood but are believed to be caused by both genetics and the environment. Several genes when damaged are known to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but more are expected to be found. Other risk factors include exposure to malnutrition or viral infections before birth; heavy, frequent use of marijuana by teens and young adults; and problems with certain brain chemicals or neurotransmitters (dopamine and glutamate). Other factors which affect brain development may also be involved.

Diagnosis is made by examining the symptoms and ruling out other possible causes. Treatment includes antipsychotic medication and medications to help treat anxiety and depression. Group therapy may also be helpful. Treatment is lifelong, but it is often difficult to keep someone with schizophrenia on medications. Self-medication with street drugs is common. Suicide is a real concern. If you or a family member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, talk to your psychiatrist, psychologist or therapist about the most current treatment options. A genetic counselor can help explain risks to other family members. Support groups are also good resources and can connect you with others affected by schizophrenia.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Schizophrenia" for support, advocacy or research.

HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

View Details
National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

View Details
Logo
Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Schizophrenia

A brochure for individuals and families discussing symptoms, causes, treatment and recovery supports.

Updated 29 Jan 2013

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 7095 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Increased calcium-independent lipoprotein phospholipase A2 but not protein S100 in patients with schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Maristela Šakić, Dalibor Karlović, Branka Vidrih, Vjekoslav Peitl, Danijel Crnković, Nada Vrkić

Journal: Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Mar;28(1):45-50.

 

The aim of this paper was to investigate serum concentrations of calcium-independent lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and protein S100 in schizophrenia patients in comparison to healthy controls and correlate them with the clinical severity, duration, and number of schizophrenia relapses.

Last Updated: 4 Mar 2016

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Elevated serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins are associated with severe delusional symptoms in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Dimitre H Dimitrov, Shuko Lee, Jesse Yantis, Craig Honaker, Nicole Braida, Consuelo Walss-Bass

Journal: J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;77(1):131-2.

 

Last Updated: 5 Feb 2016

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The effect of cariprazine on hostility associated with schizophrenia: post hoc analyses from 3 randomized controlled trials.
 

Author(s): Leslie Citrome, Suresh Durgam, Kaifeng Lu, Paul Ferguson, István Laszlovszky

Journal: J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;77(1):109-15.

 

Although most patients with schizophrenia are not aggressive, individuals with the disorder have increased risk of hostile behavior. Cariprazine, a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic with preferential binding to D3 receptors, was evaluated for antihostility ...

Last Updated: 5 Feb 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Schizophrenia" returned 1415 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.
 

Author(s): Bjanka Vuksan-Ćusa, Marina Šagud, Iva Radoš

Journal: Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Mar;28(1):30-3.

 

Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from ...

Last Updated: 4 Mar 2016

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Significant Effect of Valproate Augmentation Therapy in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis Study.
 

Author(s): Ping-Tao Tseng, Yen-Wen Chen, Weilun Chung, Kun-Yu Tu, Hung-Yu Wang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Pao-Yen Lin

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jan;95(4):e2475.

 

Valproate is an anticonvulsant, which is also widely used for treating psychiatric disorders. Some clinical trials have demonstrated benefits of valproate augmentation therapy in schizophrenia. Previous meta-analysis showed inconsistent findings because of limited literature at that ...

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2016

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Bone Mineral Density in Schizophrenia: An Update of Current Meta-Analysis and Literature Review Under Guideline of PRISMA.
 

Author(s): Ping-Tao Tseng, Yen-Wen Chen, Pin-Yang Yeh, Kun-Yu Tu, Yu-Shian Cheng, Ching-Kuan Wu

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(47):e1967.

 

Numerous reports have discussed bone mineral density (BMD) or the risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenia, but have yielded only controversial results.We conducted an update of meta-analysis to examine the overall change in BMD in patients with schizophrenia and the effect on BMD of ...

Last Updated: 4 Dec 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Long-acting Risperidone Microspheres in Patients With Schizophrenia or Other Psychotic Disorders When Switching From Typical Antipsychotic (Oral/Depot) or Atypical Oral Other Than Risperidone
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia, Catatonic; Schizophrenia, Disorganized; Schizophrenia, Paranoid; Schizophrenia; Psychotic Disorders

 

Last Updated: 6 Jul 2010

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in Patients With Super Refractory Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Refractory Schizophrenia; Super Refractory Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 27 Jan 2014

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Pregablin for Anxiety-comorbidity in Patients With Schizophrenia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Schizophrenia; Anxiety-comorbidity to Schizophrenia

 

Last Updated: 4 Jan 2016

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