Postpartum depression

Common Name(s)

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a severe form of depression that some new mothers may experience after childbirth. Symptoms include crying and sadness, loss of appetite, insomnia, intense irritability and anger, overwhelming fatigue, lack of joy in life, feelings of shame, difficulty bonding with your baby, withdrawal from family and friends and thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. In very severe cases, the mother may experience hallucinations. Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression usually develop within the first four weeks following childbirth but may develop anytime within the first year. Recent studies have shown that 50% of the time, postpartum depression actually begins during the pregnancy. The cause is not known. Hormonal and physical changes after birth and the stress of caring for a new baby may play a role. A family or personal history of depression, anxiety or postpartum depression increases a woman’s risk of developing postpartum depression. Women who have diabetes or a thyroid imbalance, gone through infertility treatments, delivered multiples or prematurely, or had complications during pregnancy are also at an increased risk.

It is important to talk to seek help if you or a family member is experiencing signs of postpartum depression. If hallucinations or thoughts of self harm or harming the baby occur, seek immediate medical attention. Treatment is available. Postpartum depression can be treated with counseling and medications, such as antidepressants, and hormone therapy treatments. With the right treatment, postpartum depression may resolve in as little as one to two months. Talk with your doctor or midwife to decide the treatment options which will work best for you. Support groups are also a good source of up to date information and can help connect you with others affected by postpartum depression. See also depression.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 263 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[Postpartum depression: prevalence and associated factors].
 

Author(s): Juliana Mano Hartmann, Raul Andrés Mendoza-Sassi, Juraci Almeida Cesar

Journal:

 

The aim was to identify the prevalence of postpartum depression and associated factors in women in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil during 2013. Trained female interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire to all participants in the city's two maternity hospitals. The study ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez, Borja Romero-Gonzalez, Helen Strivens-Vilchez, Raquel Gonzalez-Perez, Olga Martinez-Augustin, Maria Isabel Peralta-Ramirez

Journal:

 

Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Institutional violence and quality of service in obstetrics are associated with postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Karina Junqueira de Souza, Daphne Rattner, Muriel Bauermann Gubert

Journal:

 

To investigate the association between institutional violence in obstetrics and postpartum depression (PP depression) and the potential effect of race, age, and educational level in this outcome.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 51 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Screening and diagnosing postpartum depression: when and how?
 

Author(s): Gustavo Paranhos de Albuquerque Moraes, Laura Lorenzo, Gabriela Arruda Reinaux Pontes, Maria Cristina Montenegro, Amaury Cantilino

Journal: Trends Psychiatry Psychother. ;39(1):54-61.

 

Prevalence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) vary widely, depending on the methodological parameters used in studies: differences in study populations, diagnostic methods, and postpartum time frame. There is also no consensus on the ideal time to perform screening, on whether PPD ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The Neurobiology of Postpartum Anxiety and Depression.
 

Author(s): Jodi L Pawluski, Joseph S Lonstein, Alison S Fleming

Journal: Trends Neurosci.. 2017 Feb;40(2):106-120.

 

Ten to twenty percent of postpartum women experience anxiety or depressive disorders, which can have detrimental effects on the mother, child, and family. Little is known about the neural correlates of these affective disorders when they occur in mothers, but they do have unique neural ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Sex differences in depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
 

Author(s): Inger Sundström Poromaa, Erika Comasco, Marios K Georgakis, Alkistis Skalkidou

Journal: J. Neurosci. Res.. 2017 01;95(1-2):719-730.

 

Women have a lifetime risk of major depression double that of men but only during their reproductive years. This sex difference has been attributed partially to activational effects of female sex steroids and also to the burdens of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Men, in contrast, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

PREPP: Preventing Postpartum Depression
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 17 Oct 2017

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Mobile Phone Based Peer Support to Prevent Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 24 Jun 2016

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Serotonin, Leptin and Adiponectin Level in Patients With Postpartum Depression: Controlled Study
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 12 Feb 2016

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