Postpartum depression

Common Name(s)

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a severe form of depression that some new mothers may experience after childbirth. Symptoms include crying and sadness, loss of appetite, insomnia, intense irritability and anger, overwhelming fatigue, lack of joy in life, feelings of shame, difficulty bonding with your baby, withdrawal from family and friends and thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. In very severe cases, the mother may experience hallucinations. Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression usually develop within the first four weeks following childbirth but may develop anytime within the first year. Recent studies have shown that 50% of the time, postpartum depression actually begins during the pregnancy. The cause is not known. Hormonal and physical changes after birth and the stress of caring for a new baby may play a role. A family or personal history of depression, anxiety or postpartum depression increases a woman’s risk of developing postpartum depression. Women who have diabetes or a thyroid imbalance, gone through infertility treatments, delivered multiples or prematurely, or had complications during pregnancy are also at an increased risk.

It is important to talk to seek help if you or a family member is experiencing signs of postpartum depression. If hallucinations or thoughts of self harm or harming the baby occur, seek immediate medical attention. Treatment is available. Postpartum depression can be treated with counseling and medications, such as antidepressants, and hormone therapy treatments. With the right treatment, postpartum depression may resolve in as little as one to two months. Talk with your doctor or midwife to decide the treatment options which will work best for you. Support groups are also a good source of up to date information and can help connect you with others affected by postpartum depression. See also depression.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 173 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda.
 

Author(s): Angela Kaida, Lynn T Matthews, Scholastic Ashaba, Alexander C Tsai, Steve Kanters, Magdalena Robak, Christina Psaros, Jerome Kabakyenga, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt, David R Bangsberg

Journal: J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014 Dec;67 Suppl 4():S179-87.

 

Among HIV-infected women, perinatal depression compromises clinical, maternal, and child health outcomes. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lower depression symptom severity but the uniformity of effect through pregnancy and postpartum periods is unknown.

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Comparative efficacy of the generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as screening tools for generalized anxiety disorder in pregnancy and the postpartum period.
 

Author(s): William Simpson, Melanie Glazer, Natalie Michalski, Meir Steiner, Benicio N Frey

Journal: Can J Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;59(8):434-40.

 

About 24.1% of pregnant women suffer from at least 1 anxiety disorder, 8.5% of whom suffer specifically from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). During the perinatal period, the presence of physical and somatic symptoms ...

Last Updated: 27 Aug 2014

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Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.
 

Author(s): Yuki Takahashi, Koji Tamakoshi

Journal: Nagoya J Med Sci. 2014 Feb;76(1-2):129-38.

 

Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term ...

Last Updated: 18 Aug 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 26 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Pharmacotherapy of postpartum depression: an update.
 

Author(s): Deborah R Kim, C Neill Epperson, Amy R Weiss, Katherine L Wisner

Journal: Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Jun;15(9):1223-34.

 

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and serious illness that affects up to 14% of women in the first month after childbirth. We present an update on the pharmacologic treatment of PPD, although there continues to be a lack of large, randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Last Updated: 19 May 2014

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Preventing postpartum depression: a meta-analytic review.
 

Author(s): Laura E Sockol, C Neill Epperson, Jacques P Barber

Journal: Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Dec;33(8):1205-17.

 

This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled ...

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2013

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Management of postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Constance Guille, Roger Newman, Leah D Fryml, Clay K Lifton, C Neill Epperson

Journal: J Midwifery Womens Health. ;58(6):643-53.

 

The mainstays of treatment for peripartum depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications. More research is needed to understand which treatments are safe, preferable, and effective. Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most ...

Last Updated: 10 Jan 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Interpersonal Therapy-Based Treatment to Prevent Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 18 Dec 2014

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Prevalence of Postpartum Depression in Hospital Jose E. Gonzalez
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 1 Aug 2012

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Social Media Intervention for Postpartum Depression
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression; Parenting

 

Last Updated: 12 Mar 2015

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