Postpartum depression

Common Name(s)

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a severe form of depression that some new mothers may experience after childbirth. Symptoms include crying and sadness, loss of appetite, insomnia, intense irritability and anger, overwhelming fatigue, lack of joy in life, feelings of shame, difficulty bonding with your baby, withdrawal from family and friends and thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. In very severe cases, the mother may experience hallucinations. Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression usually develop within the first four weeks following childbirth but may develop anytime within the first year. Recent studies have shown that 50% of the time, postpartum depression actually begins during the pregnancy. The cause is not known. Hormonal and physical changes after birth and the stress of caring for a new baby may play a role. A family or personal history of depression, anxiety or postpartum depression increases a woman’s risk of developing postpartum depression. Women who have diabetes or a thyroid imbalance, gone through infertility treatments, delivered multiples or prematurely, or had complications during pregnancy are also at an increased risk.

It is important to talk to seek help if you or a family member is experiencing signs of postpartum depression. If hallucinations or thoughts of self harm or harming the baby occur, seek immediate medical attention. Treatment is available. Postpartum depression can be treated with counseling and medications, such as antidepressants, and hormone therapy treatments. With the right treatment, postpartum depression may resolve in as little as one to two months. Talk with your doctor or midwife to decide the treatment options which will work best for you. Support groups are also a good source of up to date information and can help connect you with others affected by postpartum depression. See also depression.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 254 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez, Borja Romero-Gonzalez, Helen Strivens-Vilchez, Raquel Gonzalez-Perez, Olga Martinez-Augustin, Maria Isabel Peralta-Ramirez

Journal:

 

Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, ...

Last Updated: 28 Aug 2017

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Institutional violence and quality of service in obstetrics are associated with postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Karina Junqueira de Souza, Daphne Rattner, Muriel Bauermann Gubert

Journal:

 

To investigate the association between institutional violence in obstetrics and postpartum depression (PP depression) and the potential effect of race, age, and educational level in this outcome.

Last Updated: 26 Jul 2017

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Sexual function and postpartum depression 6 months after attempted operative vaginal delivery according to fetal head station: A prospective population-based cohort study.
 

Author(s): Guillaume Ducarme, Jean-François Hamel, Stéphanie Brun, Hugo Madar, Benjamin Merlot, Loïc Sentilhes

Journal:

 

To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD), and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on female and male sexual function and symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) at 6 months.

Last Updated: 7 Jun 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 46 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Screening and diagnosing postpartum depression: when and how?
 

Author(s): Gustavo Paranhos de Albuquerque Moraes, Laura Lorenzo, Gabriela Arruda Reinaux Pontes, Maria Cristina Montenegro, Amaury Cantilino

Journal: Trends Psychiatry Psychother. ;39(1):54-61.

 

Prevalence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) vary widely, depending on the methodological parameters used in studies: differences in study populations, diagnostic methods, and postpartum time frame. There is also no consensus on the ideal time to perform screening, on whether PPD ...

Last Updated: 13 Apr 2017

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[Oxytocin and postpartum depression].
 

Author(s): C Cardaillac, C Rua, E G Simon, W El-Hage

Journal: J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2016 Oct;45(8):786-795.

 

Postpartum depression (PPD) is prevalent (about 10%) with a major impact on the mother and child health. At the hormonal level, poor regulation of oxytocin rate has a key role in depression. Recently, oxytocin has been used on psychiatric therapy, intranasal or intravenously, particularly ...

Last Updated: 17 Jun 2016

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Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues.
 

Author(s): Ming Li, Shinn-Yi Chou

Journal: Zool. Res.. 2016 Jul;37(4):229-36.

 

The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, ...

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2016

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

PREPP: Preventing Postpartum Depression
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 17 Oct 2017

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Mobile Phone Based Peer Support to Prevent Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 24 Jun 2016

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Be a Mom: Effectiveness of a Web-based Preventive Intervention for Postpartum Depression
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: PostPartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 18 Jan 2017

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