Postpartum depression

Common Name(s)

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a severe form of depression that some new mothers may experience after childbirth. Symptoms include crying and sadness, loss of appetite, insomnia, intense irritability and anger, overwhelming fatigue, lack of joy in life, feelings of shame, difficulty bonding with your baby, withdrawal from family and friends and thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. In very severe cases, the mother may experience hallucinations. Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression usually develop within the first four weeks following childbirth but may develop anytime within the first year. Recent studies have shown that 50% of the time, postpartum depression actually begins during the pregnancy. The cause is not known. Hormonal and physical changes after birth and the stress of caring for a new baby may play a role. A family or personal history of depression, anxiety or postpartum depression increases a woman’s risk of developing postpartum depression. Women who have diabetes or a thyroid imbalance, gone through infertility treatments, delivered multiples or prematurely, or had complications during pregnancy are also at an increased risk.

It is important to talk to seek help if you or a family member is experiencing signs of postpartum depression. If hallucinations or thoughts of self harm or harming the baby occur, seek immediate medical attention. Treatment is available. Postpartum depression can be treated with counseling and medications, such as antidepressants, and hormone therapy treatments. With the right treatment, postpartum depression may resolve in as little as one to two months. Talk with your doctor or midwife to decide the treatment options which will work best for you. Support groups are also a good source of up to date information and can help connect you with others affected by postpartum depression. See also depression.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 29 Jan 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 29 Jan 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 150 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.
 

Author(s): Laura E Sockol, C Neill Epperson, Jacques P Barber

Journal: Arch Womens Ment Health. 2014 Jun;17(3):199-212.

 

Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated ...

Last Updated: 16 May 2014

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HMNC1 gene polymorphism associated with postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Antonio M Alvim-Soares, Débora M Miranda, Simone B Campos, Patricia Figueira, Humberto Correa, Marco A Romano-Silva

Journal: Rev Bras Psiquiatr. ;36(1):96-7.

 

Last Updated: 7 Mar 2014

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Cognitive behavioral therapy in combination with systemic family therapy improves mild to moderate postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): Yongmei Hou, Peicheng Hu, Yongmei Zhang, Qiaoyun Lu, Dandan Wang, Ling Yin, Yaoqi Chen, Xiaobo Zou

Journal: Rev Bras Psiquiatr. ;36(1):47-52.

 

To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in combination with systemic family therapy (SFT) on mild to moderate postpartum depression and sleep quality.

Last Updated: 7 Mar 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 25 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Preventing postpartum depression: a meta-analytic review.
 

Author(s): Laura E Sockol, C Neill Epperson, Jacques P Barber

Journal: Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Dec;33(8):1205-17.

 

This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled ...

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2013

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Breastfeeding and postpartum depression: state of the art review.
 

Author(s): Bárbara Figueiredo, Cláudia C Dias, Sónia Brandão, Catarina Canário, Rui Nunes-Costa

Journal: J Pediatr (Rio J). ;89(4):332-8.

 

To review the literature on the association between breastfeeding and postpartum depression.

Last Updated: 23 Jul 2013

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Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression.
 

Author(s): E R Ellsworth-Bowers, E J Corwin

Journal: Nutr Res Rev. 2012 Jun;25(1):180-92.

 

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, ...

Last Updated: 2 Aug 2012

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in Genetics Home Reference.

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Interpersonal Therapy-Based Treatment to Prevent Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 10 Jan 2014

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Prevalence of Postpartum Depression in Hospital Jose E. Gonzalez
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 1 Aug 2012

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Can Oxytocin Level Predict Postpartum Depression?
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 17 Jul 2014

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