Mental Retardation

Common Name(s)

Mental Retardation

Intellectual disability, formerly known as mental retardation, refers to below-average mental ability observed in individuals. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe, and can be caused by a number of factors, including abnormal brain growth, genetic conditions, problems during pregnancy or childbirth, and infections. However, it is often hard to identify the exact causes. An individual with intellectual disability often has problems with reasoning and solving problems, as well as performing day-to-day tasks. Doctors often use IQ measurements to identify intellectual disability. A person with an IQ below 70 is considered intellectually disabled. Doctors evaluate a person's ability to perform day to day tasks by comparing his or her skills with those of individuals of the same age. Intellectual disability is often diagnosed during childhood. Signs like walking and talking late, slow mastering of basic tasks, and having difficulty remembering things may suggest intellectual disability in children. Treatment is based on a case-by-case basis and depends on the specific needs of the patient. Doctors seek help from various therapists and community services to provide support and care for families affected by intellectual disability.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Mental Retardation" for support, advocacy or research.

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CNS Foundation

CNS Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: - Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for the more than 14 million children living with some form of neurological disorder - Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology - Educate the public, and public officials, on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological disorder research

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

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VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Mental Retardation" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
CNS Foundation

CNS Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: - Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for the more than 14 million children living with some form of neurological disorder - Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology - Educate the public, and public officials, on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological disorder research

http://www.cnsfoundation.org

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

http://www.mowatwilson.org

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

View Details
VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

http://www.vor.net

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Toolkit for Families

Advocacy resources for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism, and their families, guardians and advocates. Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Toolkit for Legislators, Policymakers, and Officials

Advocacy resources for legislators and policymakers re: to developmental disabilities, including autism, Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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VOR Press Kit

VOR's 2014 Press Kit, a collection of written materials designed to introduce VOR to the media and others, is now available. For more information, please contact Julie Huso, Executive Director at jhuso@vor.net.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Olmstead Resources

The Supreme Court, in its landmark Olmstead v. L.C.n decision, recognized the need for a range of services, based on individual choice and need, which respond to the varied and unique needs of the entire disability community.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Learn About VOR

VOR's Mission, Policy and Positions, and more. Learn more about the only national non-profit organization advocating for high quality care and human rights based on individual choice and need.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Mental Retardation" returned 768 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Identification and glycerol-induced correction of misfolding mutations in the X-linked mental retardation gene CASK.
 

Author(s): Leslie E W LaConte, Vrushali Chavan, Konark Mukherjee

Journal:

 

The overwhelming amount of available genomic sequence variation information demands a streamlined approach to examine known pathogenic mutations of any given protein. Here we seek to outline a strategy to easily classify pathogenic missense mutations that cause protein misfolding ...

Last Updated: 7 Feb 2014

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Mutations in PGAP3 impair GPI-anchor maturation, causing a subtype of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation.
 

Author(s): Malcolm F Howard, Yoshiko Murakami, Alistair T Pagnamenta, Cornelia Daumer-Haas, Björn Fischer, Jochen Hecht, David A Keays, Samantha J L Knight, Uwe Kölsch, Ulrike Krüger, Steffen Leiz, Yusuke Maeda, Daphne Mitchell, Stefan Mundlos, John A Phillips, Peter N Robinson, Usha Kini, Jenny C Taylor, Denise Horn, Taroh Kinoshita, Peter M Krawitz

Journal: Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 2014 Feb;94(2):278-87.

 

Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional ...

Last Updated: 10 Feb 2014

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Homicide, fragile X syndrome, and mental retardation.
 

Author(s): Lisieux Elaine de Borba Telles, Pedro Henrique Iserhard Zoratto, Vivian Peres Day, Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

Journal: Rev Bras Psiquiatr. ;35(4):443-4.

 

Last Updated: 9 Jan 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Mental Retardation" returned 81 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[Advances in the identification of the aetiology of mental retardation].
 

Author(s): Gabriel González, Víctor Raggio, María Boidi, Alejandra Tapié, Leda Roche

Journal: Rev Neurol. 2013 Sep;57 Suppl 1():S75-83.

 

Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, ...

Last Updated: 30 Jul 2013

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Familial mental retardation: a review and practical classification.
 

Author(s): Angelica Francesca Maris, Ingrid Tremel Barbato, Alexis Trott, Marco Aurélio Echart Montano

Journal: Cien Saude Colet. 2013 Jun;18(6):1717-29.

 

Mental retardation (MR) is a definition which comprises a series of conditions whose common feature is an intellectual handicap that develops before the age of 18, afflicting 2-3% of the world's population. The classification of MR into different categories is determined by the extent ...

Last Updated: 11 Jun 2013

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Fragile X mental retardation protein and synaptic plasticity.
 

Author(s): Michael S Sidorov, Benjamin D Auerbach, Mark F Bear

Journal:

 

Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maintenance and regulation of long-lasting changes in synaptic strength. In this ...

Last Updated: 26 Apr 2013

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Pain and Emotional Expression in Children With Autism or Mental Retardation
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Autism; Mental Retardation

 

Last Updated: 28 Oct 2010

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Safety and Efficacy of BMMNCin Patients With Mental Retardation
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Mental Retardation

 

Last Updated: 16 Sep 2014

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Repetitive Behavior Disorders in People With Severe Mental Retardation
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Mental Retardation; Stereotyped Behavior; Self-Injurious Behavior; Compulsive Behavior

 

Last Updated: 22 Jun 2007

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