Legionellosis

Common Name(s)

Legionellosis

Legionellosis is an infection caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. This bacterium can be found in water and grows best in hot tubs, plumbing systems, and shallow fountains. Legionella is not spread human to human, but is spread by inhalation of water droplets containing the bacteria. Transmission often occurs when a spray can, humidifier or a water system involved with air conditioning are contaminated. Most individuals who inhale Legionella don’t develop symptoms of infection because the immune system can destroy the bacteria. Those who are at risk for infection are older people, those with pre-existing lung diseases, and those with weakened immune systems.

Symptoms of legionellosis include a high fever, headache, shortness of breath, coughing, muscle aches, confusion, and lack of energy. There are two conditions associated with Legionella infection: Legionnaire’s disease and Pontiac fever. Legionnaire’s disease is a lung infection (pneumonia) with symptoms beginning anywhere from two days to two weeks from the time of infection. Pontiac fever has the same symptoms as Legionnaire’s disease but lasts for two to five days and resolves without treatment. Unlike Legionnaire’s disease, Pontiac fever does not cause pneumonia.

Diagnosis of Legionnaire’s disease can be made using a urine antigen test to detect the bacteria in the urine, growing the bacteria in a culture dish to identify it from the body, and using blood tests. An X-ray and physical exam are used to diagnose pneumonia. Legionnaire’s disease is usually treated with antibiotics. If you have been diagnosed with legionellosis, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Legionellosis" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Legionellosis" returned 70 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Legionellosis in Poland in 2014
 

Author(s): Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński

Journal: Przegl Epidemiol. ;70(2):203-207.

 

The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2014.

Last Updated: 25 Oct 2016

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Post-Legionellosis Proliferative Glomerulonephritis.
 

Author(s): Gioacchino Li Cavoli, Luisa Bono, Calogera Tortorici, Tancredi Vincenzo Li Cavoli, Ugo Rotolo

Journal: J Bras Nefrol. ;37(4):505-6.

 

Last Updated: 9 Dec 2015

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Active Bacterial Core Surveillance for Legionellosis - United States, 2011-2013.
 

Author(s): Kathleen L Dooling, Karrie-Ann Toews, Lauri A Hicks, Laurel E Garrison, Brian Bachaus, Shelley Zansky, L Rand Carpenter, Bill Schaffner, Erin Parker, Susan Petit, Ann Thomas, Stephanie Thomas, Robert Mansmann, Craig Morin, Benjamin White, Gayle E Langley

Journal:

 

During 2000–2011, passive surveillance for legionellosis in the United States demonstrated a 249% increase in crude incidence, although little was known about the clinical course and method of diagnosis. In 2011, a system of active, population-based surveillance for legionellosis ...

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Legionellosis" returned 6 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Legionellosis on the Rise: A Review of Guidelines for Prevention in the United States.
 

Author(s): Alyssa Parr, Ellen A Whitney, Ruth L Berkelman

Journal: J Public Health Manag Pract. ;21(5):E17-26.

 

Reported cases of legionellosis more than tripled between 2001 and 2012 in the United States. The disease results primarily from exposure to aerosolized water contaminated with Legionella.

Last Updated: 28 Jul 2015

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Legionellosis and biologic therapies.
 

Author(s): M Bodro, J Carratalà, D L Paterson

Journal: Respir Med. 2014 Aug;108(8):1223-8.

 

Biologic therapies are widely used in inflammatory diseases, and they are associated to an increased infection risk, especially to granulomatous and intracellular infections such as Legionella.

Last Updated: 11 Aug 2014

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Overview of diagnostic and detection methods for legionellosis and Legionella spp.
 

Author(s): H Tronel, P Hartemann

Journal: Lett. Appl. Microbiol.. 2009 Jun;48(6):653-6.

 

Since 1977, the diagnostic tools for Legionnaires' disease have been based on culture and serological investigations. Both methods require considerable time to produce results and have 'low' to 'reasonable' sensitivity. Since the introduction of urinary antigen tests in the mid 1990s, ...

Last Updated: 3 Aug 2009

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Legionnaires' Effect on Smell
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Legionnaires' Disease

 

Last Updated: 25 Oct 2017

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Bacterial and Human Biomarkers of Prognostic Value for Severe Legionnaire's Disease
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Legionella

 

Last Updated: 17 Aug 2017

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Impact of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing (LUAT) on the Local Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Legionella Pneumonia
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Legionella Pneumophila Pneumonia

 

Last Updated: 26 Jun 2017

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