Chronic kidney disease

Common Name(s)

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), otherwise known as chronic renal failure, occurs when the kidneys become damaged and lose the ability to properly filter out waste from the blood stream. Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease have all been linked to the development of CKD.

Symptoms of CKD may include fatigue, poor appetite, anemia (low blood count), nausea, swollen feet, irritated skin, increased need to urinate, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, trouble concentrating, and weakening bones. Early stages often do not show symptoms; therefore, regular checkups are critical for elderly and high risk individuals. A diagnosis can be determined through a blood test, urine test, imaging test, or the removal of sample tissue (biopsy).

While CKD can develop in anyone of any age, adults 65 years or older, and those who are African American, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, and American Indian are most at risk. Other risk factors include smoking, obesity, heart disease, high cholesterol, and having a family history of kidney failure.

There are five stages of CKD, each stage representing a gradual loss of function. End stage kidney failure, the fifth stage, is irreversible and fatal, so prevention and immediate intervention is critical. Depending on the cause, CKD can be treated if the source of the complication can be fixed. If this is not the case, treatment options focus on lessening the symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. If the condition progresses to the point where the kidneys cannot function on their own, treatments may resort to artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with CKD, talk with your doctor about treatment options. Support groups are also good sources of support and information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Chronic kidney disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alport Syndrome Foundation

Our MISSION is to educate and support patients and their families that have been affected by this genetic kidney disease with the goal of funding research to find more effective treatment protocols and a cure for Alport Syndrome.

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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American Association of Kidney Patients

Dedicated to improving the quality of life for kidney patients through education, advocacy and fostering patient communities.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

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National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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The Cain Foundation for Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome (BOR)

The CAIN FOUNDATION, a voluntary based Charity. Our mission is to represent the interests of many people affected by Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome and to improve their quality of life by providing support and information related to this Syndrome. We seek to educate both Medical Practitioners and the public by promoting Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) Syndrome awareness. Vision to Educate. Mission to Care.

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Chronic kidney disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alport Syndrome Foundation

Our MISSION is to educate and support patients and their families that have been affected by this genetic kidney disease with the goal of funding research to find more effective treatment protocols and a cure for Alport Syndrome.

http://www.alportsyndrome.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

View Details
American Association of Kidney Patients

Dedicated to improving the quality of life for kidney patients through education, advocacy and fostering patient communities.

http://www.aakp.org

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

http://www.bardetbiedl.org/

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

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National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

http://www.kidney.org

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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The Cain Foundation for Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome (BOR)

The CAIN FOUNDATION, a voluntary based Charity. Our mission is to represent the interests of many people affected by Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome and to improve their quality of life by providing support and information related to this Syndrome. We seek to educate both Medical Practitioners and the public by promoting Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) Syndrome awareness. Vision to Educate. Mission to Care.

http://www.thecainfoundation.com

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Chronic kidney disease" returned 3822 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

[Impact of anemia and chronic kidney disease on the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients].
 

Author(s): C Yang, J W Wang, Y Z Yang, K H Bai, B X Gao, M H Zhao, L X Zhang, S L Wu, F Wang

Journal: Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018 Jun;50(3):495-500.

 

To explore the association between anemia and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients, and whether the association is modified by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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[Incidence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in community-based patients with diabetes].
 

Author(s): H B Lin, Y Chen, P Shen, X Y Li, Y Q Si, D D Zhang, X Tang, P Gao

Journal: Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018 Jun;50(3):416-421.

 

To estimate the incidence rate and effects of risk factors on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese patients with diabetes, based on Electronic Health Records (EHRs) from the Chinese Electronic health Records Research in Yinzhou (CHERRY) Study.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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A case report of remission of refractory membranous nephropathy progressing to stage 4 chronic kidney disease using low-dose rituximab: A long-term follow-up.
 

Author(s): Xu-Jie Zhou, Fu-De Zhou, Su-Xia Wang, Ming-Hui Zhao

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Jun;97(25):e11184.

 

As suggested by the 2012 KDIGO guidelines, persistent elevation of serum creatinine > 3.5 mg/dl (> 309 μmol/l) (or an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min per 1.73 m is one of contradictions for the use of immunosuppressive therapy in membranous nephropathy.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Chronic kidney disease" returned 929 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus among adult dialysis patients: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.
 

Author(s): Xinmiao Hu, Yan Sang, Mei Yang, Xue Chen, Wenjuan Tang

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 May;97(21):e10633.

 

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated pruritus is a common adverse symptom in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by dialysis. Herein, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of CKD-associated pruritus among adult dialysis patients was conducted.An electronic ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Efficacy of febuxostat in hyperuricemic patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials: A PRISMA-compliant article.
 

Author(s): Xiang Xia Zeng, Yunliang Tang, Kaixiang Hu, Xi Zhou, Jiao Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Jianying Liu, Jixiong Xu

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(13):e0161.

 

To investigate the efficacy of febuxostat in hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were analyzed.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Rupert W Major, Mark R I Cheng, Robert A Grant, Saran Shantikumar, Gang Xu, Issaam Oozeerally, Nigel J Brunskill, Laura J Gray

Journal:

 

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population using prognostic models based on routinely collected risk factors is embedded in clinical ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Clearance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Last Updated: 22 Jun 2018

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Inspiratory Muscle Training in Chronic Kidney Disease
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Last Updated: 12 Mar 2017

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Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Childhood Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Last Updated: 21 Jul 2017

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