Chronic kidney disease

Common Name(s)

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), otherwise known as chronic renal failure, occurs when the kidneys become damaged and lose the ability to properly filter out waste from the blood stream. Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease have all been linked to the development of CKD.

Symptoms of CKD may include fatigue, poor appetite, anemia (low blood count), nausea, swollen feet, irritated skin, increased need to urinate, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, trouble concentrating, and weakening bones. Early stages often do not show symptoms; therefore, regular checkups are critical for elderly and high risk individuals. A diagnosis can be determined through a blood test, urine test, imaging test, or the removal of sample tissue (biopsy).

While CKD can develop in anyone of any age, adults 65 years or older, and those who are African American, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, and American Indian are most at risk. Other risk factors include smoking, obesity, heart disease, high cholesterol, and having a family history of kidney failure.

There are five stages of CKD, each stage representing a gradual loss of function. End stage kidney failure, the fifth stage, is irreversible and fatal, so prevention and immediate intervention is critical. Depending on the cause, CKD can be treated if the source of the complication can be fixed. If this is not the case, treatment options focus on lessening the symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. If the condition progresses to the point where the kidneys cannot function on their own, treatments may resort to artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with CKD, talk with your doctor about treatment options. Support groups are also good sources of support and information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Chronic kidney disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alport Syndrome Foundation

Our MISSION is to educate and support patients and their families that have been affected by this genetic kidney disease with the goal of funding research to find more effective treatment protocols and a cure for Alport Syndrome.

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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American Association of Kidney Patients

Dedicated to improving the quality of life for kidney patients through education, advocacy and fostering patient communities.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

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National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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The Cain Foundation for Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome (BOR)

The CAIN FOUNDATION, a voluntary based Charity. Our mission is to represent the interests of many people affected by Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome and to improve their quality of life by providing support and information related to this Syndrome. We seek to educate both Medical Practitioners and the public by promoting Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) Syndrome awareness. Vision to Educate. Mission to Care.

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Chronic kidney disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alport Syndrome Foundation

Our MISSION is to educate and support patients and their families that have been affected by this genetic kidney disease with the goal of funding research to find more effective treatment protocols and a cure for Alport Syndrome.

http://www.alportsyndrome.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2014

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American Association of Kidney Patients

Dedicated to improving the quality of life for kidney patients through education, advocacy and fostering patient communities.

http://www.aakp.org

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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Bardet Biedl Syndrome Family Association

Our Mission: Improve the lives of families affected by BBS through information, support and by advancing research and therapy Our Vision: Effective support, therapy, and treatment for all people affected by Bardet Biedl Syndrome

http://www.bardetbiedl.org/

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2013

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National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

http://www.kidney.org

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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The Cain Foundation for Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome (BOR)

The CAIN FOUNDATION, a voluntary based Charity. Our mission is to represent the interests of many people affected by Branchio-oto-renal Syndrome and to improve their quality of life by providing support and information related to this Syndrome. We seek to educate both Medical Practitioners and the public by promoting Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) Syndrome awareness. Vision to Educate. Mission to Care.

http://www.thecainfoundation.com

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Chronic kidney disease" returned 2732 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis with Chronic Kidney Disease.
 

Author(s): Farid Nakhoul, Ofer Ben Itzhaq, Evgeny Farber

Journal: Isr. Med. Assoc. J.. 2015 Sep;17(9):581-2.

 

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2015

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Serum Cystatin C, Markers of Chronic Kidney Disease, and Retinopathy in Persons with Diabetes.
 

Author(s): Chee Wai Wong, Boon Wee Teo, Ecosse Lamoureux, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Jie Jin Wang, E Shyong Tai, Sunil Sethi, Tien Yin Wong, Charumathi Sabanayagam

Journal: J Diabetes Res. 2015 ;2015():404280.

 

We examined the association of CKD defined by serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and albuminuria with moderate diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Last Updated: 20 Nov 2015

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Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Risk Factors and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Independently Predict Arterial stiffness in 9903 Subjects With and Without Chronic Kidney Disease.
 

Author(s): Sung-Sheng Tsai, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chia-Pin Lin, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Lung-Sheng Wu, Pao-Hsien Chu

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Sep;94(36):e1419.

 

Metabolic syndrome (MS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are related to cardiovascular diseases. Although MS is common in CKD subjects, the contribution of MS-associated risk factors and hs-CRP to arterial stiffness in CKD has not been ...

Last Updated: 11 Sep 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Chronic kidney disease" returned 665 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effect of progressive resistive exercise training in improving mobility and functional ability of middle adulthood patients with chronic kidney disease.
 

Author(s): Sanjiv K Sah, Muhammad A Siddiqui, Haider Darain

Journal: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2015 Sep;26(5):912-23.

 

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in their middle adulthood are more prone to reduced mobility than younger patients having the same medical condition. Progressive resistive exercise training (PRT) is deemed an effective treatment approach for the management of muscular weakness ...

Last Updated: 10 Sep 2015

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Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Wei-Jie Li, Xu-Miao Chen, Xiao-Ying Nie, Jing Zhang, Yun-Jiu Cheng, Xiao-Xiong Lin, Su-Hua Wu

Journal: Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2015 Apr;70(4):301-11.

 

Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease ...

Last Updated: 28 May 2015

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Crosstalk between the unfolded protein response and NF-κB-mediated inflammation in the progression of chronic kidney disease.
 

Author(s): Zahraa Mohammed-Ali, Gaile L Cruz, Jeffrey G Dickhout

Journal: J Immunol Res. 2015 ;2015():428508.

 

The chronic inflammatory response is emerging as an important therapeutic target in progressive chronic kidney disease. A key transcription factor in the induction of chronic inflammation is NF-κB. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained activation of the unfolded protein ...

Last Updated: 15 May 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Improving Evidence-Based Primary Care for Chronic Kidney Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Kidney Insufficiency; Chronic Renal Diseases; Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Kidney Insufficiency, Chronic

 

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2014

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Primary Cardiovascular Risk Prevention With Aspirin in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4; Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3

 

Last Updated: 17 Oct 2012

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The Cost Effectiveness and Evaluation of Disease Management of Chronic Kidney Disease and High Risk Population
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Kidney Diseases; Chronic Kidney Insufficiency

 

Last Updated: 31 Jul 2014

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