Alzheimer's Disease

Common Name(s)

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive condition of the brain that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common form of dementia, a term that refers to any condition that worsens mental functioning over time. Alzheimer's disease is most common in individuals 65 years and older, but cases of early onset have been documented in individuals in their 40s and 50s.

Alzheimer's is caused by two abnormal protein structures ("plaques" which are protein deposits and "tangles" which are twisted protein fibers) found in the brain tissue along with the loss of connection between neurons (nerve cells in the brains). These abnormalities cause the brain cells to lose normal function. It is uncertain what causes these abnormalities to develop but several genes have been identified as risk factors. Environmental factors and behaviors such as alcoholism have been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well.

The first sign of Alzheimer's is an inability to remember newly learned information. As the condition progresses over time, the individual may experience worsening memory loss, changes in mood or behavior and eventually severe confusion (in terms of time, events, or places), disorientation, and unnecessary suspicions about family or others. The individual may progress to the point that he or she cannot take care of him or herself, eat or swallow, speak, or walk. A diagnosis for Alzheimer’s is not definitive but is based upon a combination of looking at someone's family history, a physical exam, and other tests. Plaques and tangles are not seen on MRI or other brain scans. Genetic testing may also be helpful in some familial cases.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's, but drug treatments are available to slow the progression, manage the symptoms, and improve quality of life. If you or someone you know is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, contact your doctor to discuss the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Alzheimer's Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alzheimer's Association

The mission of the Alzheimer's Association is to eliminate Alzheimer's disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

Last Updated: 7 Jul 2015

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Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center

The Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center was established by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to provide information to health professionals, patients and their families and the public about Alzheimer's disease and other memory disorders.

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2014

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Alzheimer's Foundation of America

To provide optimal care and services to individuals confronting dementia, and to their caregivers and families--through member organizations dedicated to improving quality of life.

Last Updated: 9 Apr 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Alzheimer's Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Alzheimer's Association

The mission of the Alzheimer's Association is to eliminate Alzheimer's disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

http://www.alz.org

Last Updated: 7 Jul 2015

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Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center

The Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center was established by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to provide information to health professionals, patients and their families and the public about Alzheimer's disease and other memory disorders.

http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers

Last Updated: 30 Oct 2014

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Alzheimer's Foundation of America

To provide optimal care and services to individuals confronting dementia, and to their caregivers and families--through member organizations dedicated to improving quality of life.

http://www.alzfdn.org

Last Updated: 9 Apr 2014

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Alzheimer's Association Helpline

The Alzheimer's Association 24/7 Helpline provides reliable information and support to all those who need assistance. Call us toll-free anytime day or night at 800.272.3900. Our 24/7 Helpline serves people with memory loss, caregivers, health care professionals and the public.

Updated 15 Oct 2012

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Alzheimer's Disease" returned 6469 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

24-month intervention with a specific multinutrient in people with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (LipiDiDiet): a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.
 

Author(s): Hilkka Soininen, Alina Solomon, Pieter Jelle Visser, Suzanne B Hendrix, Kaj Blennow, Miia Kivipelto, Tobias Hartmann,

Journal: Lancet Neurol. 2017 Dec;16(12):965-975.

 

Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. Previous trials of the multinutrient Fortasyn Connect showed benefits in mild Alzheimer's disease dementia. LipiDiDiet investigated the effects of Fortasyn Connect on cognition and related measures in prodromal ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.
 

Author(s): Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Michael Ginda, Katy Börner, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen,

Journal:

 

Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Improved Diagnostic Accuracy of Alzheimer's Disease by Combining Regional Cortical Thickness and Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Set.
 

Author(s): Ji Eun Park, Bumwoo Park, Sang Joon Kim, Ho Sung Kim, Choong Gon Choi, Seung Chai Jung, Joo Young Oh, Jae-Hong Lee, Jee Hoon Roh, Woo Hyun Shim,

Journal: Korean J Radiol. ;18(6):983-991.

 

To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Alzheimer's Disease" returned 1754 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Alzheimer's disease and cytokine IL-10 gene polymorphisms: is there an association?
 

Author(s): Carolina Antunes Magalhães, Maria das Graças Carvalho, Lirlândia Pires de Sousa, Paulo Caramelli, Karina Braga Gomes

Journal: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2017 Sep;75(9):649-656.

 

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. In the last 15 years, a new theory has proposed the autoimmune mechanism as a trigger for AD. Studies on the association between AD and inflammatory biomarkers have yielded controversial results. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Microglia in Alzheimer's disease.
 

Author(s): Heela Sarlus, Michael T Heneka

Journal: J. Clin. Invest.. 2017 Sep;127(9):3240-3249.

 

Microglia are brain-resident myeloid cells that mediate key functions to support the CNS. Microglia express a wide range of receptors that act as molecular sensors, which recognize exogenous or endogenous CNS insults and initiate an immune response. In addition to their classical ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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APP mouse models for Alzheimer's disease preclinical studies.
 

Author(s): Hiroki Sasaguri, Per Nilsson, Shoko Hashimoto, Kenichi Nagata, Takashi Saito, Bart De Strooper, John Hardy, Robert Vassar, Bengt Winblad, Takaomi C Saido

Journal: EMBO J.. 2017 Sep;36(17):2473-2487.

 

Animal models of human diseases that accurately recapitulate clinical pathology are indispensable for understanding molecular mechanisms and advancing preclinical studies. The Alzheimer's disease (AD) research community has historically used first-generation transgenic (Tg) mouse ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Memantine Treatment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Alzheimer Disease

 

Last Updated: 25 May 2017

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Last Updated: 13 Oct 2016

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Riluzole in Mild Alzheimer's Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Alzheimer's Disease

 

Last Updated: 21 Sep 2017

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