Hepatic encephalopathy

Common Name(s)

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. It is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded.  Signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely. They may include personality or mood changes, intellectual impairment, abnormal movements, a depressed level of consciousness, and other symptoms.  There are several theories regarding the exact cause, but development of the condition is probably at least partially due to the effect of substances that are toxic to nerve tissue (neurotoxic), which are typically present with liver damage and/or liver disease. Treatment depends upon the severity of mental status changes and upon the certainty of the diagnosis.
 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Hepatic encephalopathy" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Hepatic encephalopathy" returned 342 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Multiple bacterial infections increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis.
 

Author(s): Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Kee Chuah, Shih-Cheng Yang, Chih-Ming Liang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Wei-Chen Tai, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Seng-Howe Nguang, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Ming-Kun Ku, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chien-Ning Hsu

Journal:

 

Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at increased risk for bacterial infections. It is not fully understood how exposure to infections induces further development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study estimated risks of infection associated with HE among patients with LC.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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JianPi HuaZhuo XingNao formula (Chinese herbal medicine) for the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial.
 

Author(s): XiaoKe Li, DaNan Gan, Ying Li, Peng Zhang, ZhiGuo Li, HongBo Du, LuDan Zhang, Yuan Cheng, YaQiang Zhang, YiJun Liang, YongAn Ye

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Apr;97(17):e0526.

 

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a subclinical state of hepatic encephalopathy with the possibility of developing into overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) and having adverse outcomes. However, no preventative medicine for MHE has been recommended so far. The aim is to evaluate ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Resveratrol in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.
 

Author(s): Giulia Malaguarnera, Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Massimo Motta, Antonio Maria Borzì, Enzo Vicari, Rita Bella, Filippo Drago, Michele Malaguarnera

Journal:

 

Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy (MHE) is characterized by an impairment of social interaction, emotional behavior, sleep disorders, physical and mental symptoms, and diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of our study is evaluating the potential liver health promoting a perspective ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Hepatic encephalopathy" returned 68 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Hepatic encephalopathy: a critical current review.
 

Author(s): Anna Hadjihambi, Natalia Arias, Mohammed Sheikh, Rajiv Jalan

Journal: Hepatol Int. 2018 Feb;12(Suppl 1):135-147.

 

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis and/or porto-systemic shunting. The clinical symptoms are widely variable, extending from subtle impairment in mental state to coma. The utility of categorizing the severity of HE accurately and efficiently ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Association between proton pump inhibitors and hepatic encephalopathy: A meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Jin Bian, Anqiang Wang, Jianzhen Lin, Liangcai Wu, Hanchun Huang, Shanshan Wang, Xiaobo Yang, Xin Lu, Yiyao Xu, Haitao Zhao

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(17):e6723.

 

Several studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use can increase the risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with liver dysfunction. However, no definite conclusion is drawn because of study design limitations. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Hyperammonemic coma after craniotomy: Hepatic encephalopathy from upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage or valproate side effect?: Case report and literature review.
 

Author(s): Xiaopeng Guo, Junji Wei, Lu Gao, Bing Xing, Zhiqin Xu

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(15):e6588.

 

Postoperative coma is not uncommon in patients after craniotomy. It generally presents as mental state changes and is usually caused by intracranial hematoma, brain edema, or swelling. Hyperammonemia can also result in postoperative coma; however, it is rarely recognized as a potential ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Fecal Transplant for Hepatic Encephalopathy
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hepatic Encephalopathy

 

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2018

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Last Updated: 8 Dec 2017

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Low-dose Rifaximin in the Treatment of Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy

 

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2017

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