Acid reflux

Common Name(s)

Acid reflux, Gastroesophageal reflux

Acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux, is a common condition in which stomach acid flows up into the esophagus. This causes a burning, painful feeling in the chest more commonly known as heartburn or acid indigestion.

The stomach makes a strong acid to help break down food and to protect the body from bacteria. The stomach is not harmed by the acid because it has a special lining. The esophagus is the tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach. It does not have the special lining, so it will be irritated by the stomach acid. Normally a special ring of muscle, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), keeps the stomach’s contents from flowing up into the esophagus. Acid reflux happens most often when the LES is not working correctly.

Symptoms of acid reflux include heartburn, bitter or sour taste in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, a chronic dry cough, wheezing and hoarseness. Heartburn usually occurs after a meal, lasts several hours and worsens while lying down. Although it is not clear what causes the LES to weaken, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing acid reflux including obesity, pregnancy, having a hiatal hernia, smoking, drinking alcohol and caffeine, and taking certain medications. Certain types of foods may also trigger an heartburn episode.

Most people manage occasional heartburn with over-the-counter antacids and medications which decrease stomach acid production. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, changing diet and drinking habits, exercising and stopping smoking may also help. If you are experiencing acid reflux more than 2 times per week, talk to your doctor because you may have a more long-term condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). If you or a loved one is experiencing the symptoms of acid reflux, talk to your doctor about which treatment options are right for you. Support groups are also a good source of information.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Acid reflux" for support, advocacy or research.

Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc. (AGMD)

AGMD is a nonprofit international organization which serves as an integral educational resource concerning digestive motility diseases and disorders. It also functions as an important information base for members of the medical and scientific communities. In addition, it provides a forum for patients suffering from digestive motility diseases and disorders as well as their families and members of the medical community.

Last Updated: 28 Feb 2015

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Acid reflux" for support, advocacy or research.

Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc. (AGMD)

AGMD is a nonprofit international organization which serves as an integral educational resource concerning digestive motility diseases and disorders. It also functions as an important information base for members of the medical and scientific communities. In addition, it provides a forum for patients suffering from digestive motility diseases and disorders as well as their families and members of the medical community.

http://www.agmd-gimotility.org

Last Updated: 28 Feb 2015

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HealthyWomen

HealthyWomen (HW) is the nation's leading independent health information source for women. Our core mission is to educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families. For more than 20 years, millions of women have been coming to HW for answers to their most pressing and personal health care questions. Through our wide array of online and print publications, HW provides health information that is original, objective, reviewed by medical experts and reflective of the advances in evidence-based health research.

http://www.healthywomen.org

Last Updated: 9 Jul 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Acid reflux" returned 165 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.
 

Author(s): Namasivayam Vikneswaran, Joseph A Murray

Journal:

 

Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting ...

Last Updated: 9 Jun 2016

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Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement.
 

Author(s): Greta Saino, Luigi Bonavina, John C Lipham, Daniel Dunn, Robert A Ganz

Journal: J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2015 Oct;25(10):787-92.

 

As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here.

Last Updated: 22 Oct 2015

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Acid Rather Than Nonacid Reflux Burden Is a Predictor of Tooth Erosion.
 

Author(s): Meenakshi Ganesh, Anne Hertzberg, Samuel Nurko, Howard Needleman, Rachel Rosen

Journal: J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.. 2016 Feb;62(2):309-13.

 

The relation between tooth erosion (TE) and gastroesophageal reflux in children has not been clearly established, and there are no studies to determine the relation with refluxate height, nonacid reflux, and erosions. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between TE ...

Last Updated: 22 Jan 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Acid reflux" returned 21 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Efficacy of acid suppression therapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease-related chronic laryngitis.
 

Author(s): Yue Yang, Haitao Wu, Jian Zhou

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(40):e4868.

 

This research aims to assess the response to acid suppression therapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related chronic laryngitis (CL).

Last Updated: 17 Oct 2016

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Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.
 

Author(s): Koji Takeuchi, Kenji Nagahama

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2014 ;2014():532594.

 

Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated ...

Last Updated: 27 Mar 2014

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Are there risks associated with empiric acid suppression treatment of infants and children suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux disease?
 

Author(s): Erica Y Chung, Jeremy Yardley

Journal: Hosp Pediatr. 2013 Jan;3(1):16-23.

 

It has become common practice to empirically treat infants and children who have suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease by using acid-suppressive medications. However, evidence to support the effectiveness of these medications in the pediatric population is limited. With multiple ...

Last Updated: 10 Dec 2013

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Diagnosis of Acid Reflux Disease Using Novel Imaging: A Prospective Study
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Non-erosive Reflux Disease

 

Last Updated: 23 Sep 2016

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Last Updated: 24 Feb 2009

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The CALIBER Study Randomized Controlled Trial of LINX Versus Double-Dose Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy for Reflux Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: GERD Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

 

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2017

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