Focal Dystonia

Common Name(s)

Focal Dystonia

Focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is localized to a specific part of the body. The dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. Focal task-specific dystonia, or FTSD, interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. Additionally, FTSD has been reported in tailors, shoemakers, hair stylists, and people who frequently type or use a computer mouse. While the abnormal movements associated with focal dystonia are usually painless, they can cause high levels of anxiety. The causes of focal dystonia are unknown, although the disorder likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is possible that the different forms of FTSD have different underlying causes. Researchers have found that at least some cases are related to malfunction of the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement. Most cases of focal dystonia are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the condition in their family. However, at least 10 percent of affected individuals have a family history which seems to follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Focal Dystonia" for support, advocacy or research.

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Focal Dystonia" for support, advocacy or research.

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Focal Dystonia" returned 71 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Abnormal movement preparation in task-specific focal hand dystonia.
 

Author(s): Jakob Jankowski, Sebastian Paus, Lukas Scheef, Malte Bewersdorff, Hans H Schild, Thomas Klockgether, Henning Boecker

Journal:

 

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in ...

Last Updated: 29 Oct 2013

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Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia.
 

Author(s): Michele Tinazzi, Angela Marotta, Alfonso Fasano, Francesco Bove, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Giovanna Squintani, Lara Pozzer, Mirta Fiorio

Journal: Brain. 2013 Mar;136(Pt 3):782-9.

 

In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile ...

Last Updated: 25 Feb 2013

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Temporal expectation in focal hand dystonia.
 

Author(s): Laura Avanzino, Davide Martino, Isadora Martino, Elisa Pelosin, Carmelo M Vicario, Marco Bove, Gianni Defazio, Giovanni Abbruzzese

Journal: Brain. 2013 Feb;136(Pt 2):444-54.

 

Patients with writer's cramp present sensory and representational abnormalities relevant to motor control, such as impairment in the temporal discrimination between tactile stimuli and in pure motor imagery tasks, like the mental rotation of corporeal and inanimate objects. However, ...

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Focal Dystonia" returned 8 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.
 

Author(s): Barbara Illowsky Karp

Journal:

 

The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and ...

Last Updated: 3 Dec 2012

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Botulinum toxin as treatment for focal dystonia: a systematic review of the pharmaco-therapeutic and pharmaco-economic value.
 

Author(s): E Zoons, M G W Dijkgraaf, J M Dijk, I N van Schaik, M A Tijssen

Journal: J. Neurol.. 2012 Dec;259(12):2519-26.

 

Focal dystonia is a common, invalidating neurologic condition characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions causing twisting movements and abnormal postures in one body part. Currently, botulinum toxin is the treatment of first choice. We performed a systematic review ...

Last Updated: 27 Nov 2012

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Focal dystonia in musicians.
 

Author(s): R Aránguiz, P Chana-Cuevas, D Alburquerque, M León

Journal: Neurologia. ;26(1):45-52.

 

A special group of focal dystonia is that known as occupational, which include dystonic disorders triggered by repetitive motor activity, closely associated with the professional activity of a specific task that the affected person performs. In this sense, musicians are a population ...

Last Updated: 21 Feb 2011

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Role of Dopamine Receptors in Primary Focal Dystonias
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Healthy; Focal Dystonias

 

Last Updated: 2 Aug 2011

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Depotentiation in People With Focal Hand Dystonia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Focal Dystonia; Healthy Volunteers

 

Last Updated: 3 Apr 2014

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Genetics of Motor Learning
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson s Disease; Dystonic Disorders; Focal Dystonia; Movement Disorders

 

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2014

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