Focal Dystonia

Common Name(s)

Focal Dystonia

Focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is localized to a specific part of the body. The dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. Focal task-specific dystonia, or FTSD, interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. Additionally, FTSD has been reported in tailors, shoemakers, hair stylists, and people who frequently type or use a computer mouse. While the abnormal movements associated with focal dystonia are usually painless, they can cause high levels of anxiety. The causes of focal dystonia are unknown, although the disorder likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is possible that the different forms of FTSD have different underlying causes. Researchers have found that at least some cases are related to malfunction of the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement. Most cases of focal dystonia are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the condition in their family. However, at least 10 percent of affected individuals have a family history which seems to follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Focal Dystonia" for support, advocacy or research.

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Focal Dystonia" for support, advocacy or research.

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Focal Dystonia" returned 70 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Velopharyngeal Dystonia: An Unusual Focal Task-specific Dystonia?
 

Author(s): Amar S Patel, Lucian Sulica, Steven J Frucht

Journal:

 

Velopharyngeal dysfunction produces a nasal speech pattern because of the inability to close the nasal airway during speech, most often associated with anatomical abnormalities of the palate.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Connectome-Wide Phenotypical and Genotypical Associations in Focal Dystonia.
 

Author(s): Stefan Fuertinger, Kristina Simonyan

Journal: J. Neurosci.. 2017 Aug;37(31):7438-7449.

 

Isolated focal dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder of unknown pathophysiology. Early studies in focal dystonias have pointed to segregated changes in brain activity and connectivity. Only recently has the notion that dystonia pathophysiology may lie in abnormalities of large-scale ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Psychiatric associations of adult-onset focal dystonia phenotypes.
 

Author(s): Brian D Berman, Johanna Junker, Erika Shelton, Stefan H Sillau, H A Jinnah, Joel S Perlmutter, Alberto J Espay, Joseph Jankovic, Marie Vidailhet, Cecilia Bonnet, William Ondo, Irene A Malaty, Ramón Rodríguez, William M McDonald, Laura Marsh, Mateusz Zurowski, Tobias Bäumer, Norbert Brüggemann

Journal: J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;88(7):595-602.

 

Depression and anxiety frequently accompany the motor manifestations of isolated adult-onset focal dystonias. Whether the body region affected when this type of dystonia first presents is associated with the severity of these neuropsychiatric symptoms is unknown.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Focal Dystonia" returned 10 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Focal task specific dystonia: a review and update.
 

Author(s): Christine M Stahl, Steven J Frucht

Journal: J. Neurol.. 2017 Jul;264(7):1536-1541.

 

In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the etiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of focal task specific dystonia (FTSD), movement disorders characterized by abnormal motor activation during the performance of specific, repetitive actions. We focus on two ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Is failed predictive control a risk factor for focal dystonia?
 

Author(s): Peter Stein, Elliot Saltzman, Kenneth Holt, Dagmar Sternad

Journal: Mov. Disord.. 2016 Dec;31(12):1772-1776.

 

Task-specific focal dystonia (TSFD) is a disorder marked by degraded coordination in complex and exacting psychomotor tasks, such as musical performance. Its development is associated with prolonged and intensive practice of these tasks, but the etiology of TSFD is still unknown. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.
 

Author(s): Barbara Illowsky Karp

Journal:

 

The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Loss of Depotentiation in Focal Dystonia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Focal Dystonia; Healthy Volunteers

 

Last Updated: 24 Apr 2018

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Compare Two Guidance Techniques for Botulinum Toxin Injections for the Treatment of Limb Spasticity and Focal Dystonia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Spasticity; Focal Dystonia; Tremor, Limb

 

Last Updated: 19 Oct 2017

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Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Focal Hand Dystonia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Dystonia; Focal Dystonia; Musician's Dystonia

 

Last Updated: 27 Mar 2018

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