Dysphagia

Common Name(s)

Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to difficulty swallowing, such as due to pain or increased effort. Dysphagia is classified based on whether there is a muscular, nerve, or structural problem. These could be due to trauma, neuromuscular disorders, hardening or tightening of skin and connective tissue, or swelling of nearby structures. Other structural problems include obstruction of the throat or esophagus. Functional dysphagia occurs when patients have trouble swallowing with no clear cause.

About 15 million Americans are affected by dysphagia, with about 1 million new diagnoses each year. About half of all Americans over the age of 60 will experience dysphagia. In addition to the causes described above, health conditions such as stroke, degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or ALS, and cancer of the head and neck can all cause dysphagia.

Not all affected individuals will recognize that they have dysphagia. Dysphagia is important to diagnose because it increases the risk of pneumonia due to the introduction of food, saliva, and nasal secretions to the airway. Additionally, dysphagia may lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and kidney failure. Symptoms of dysphagia include an inability to control food or saliva in the mouth, coughing, choking, difficulty starting to swallow, recurrent pneumonia, weight loss, wet voice after swallowing, and nasal regurgitation. In severe cases, individuals may be unable to swallow solid food and there may be pain when trying to swallow.

Treatments for dysphagia include surgery, medication, and feeding tubes. In addition, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and diet modification may be suggested. If you are suffering from dysphagia, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Dysphagia" for support, advocacy or research.

Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc. (AGMD)

AGMD is a nonprofit international organization which serves as an integral educational resource concerning digestive motility diseases and disorders. It also functions as an important information base for members of the medical and scientific communities. In addition, it provides a forum for patients suffering from digestive motility diseases and disorders as well as their families and members of the medical community.

Last Updated: 28 Feb 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Dysphagia" for support, advocacy or research.

Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc. (AGMD)

AGMD is a nonprofit international organization which serves as an integral educational resource concerning digestive motility diseases and disorders. It also functions as an important information base for members of the medical and scientific communities. In addition, it provides a forum for patients suffering from digestive motility diseases and disorders as well as their families and members of the medical community.

http://www.agmd-gimotility.org

Last Updated: 28 Feb 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Dysphagia" returned 597 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Development of the Brief Bedside Dysphagia Screening Test - Revised: a Cross-Sectional Czech Study.
 

Author(s): Petra Mandysová, Edvard Ehler, Jana Škvrňáková, Michal Černý, Iva Bártová, Arnošt Pellant

Journal: Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2015 ;58(2):49-55.

 

The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the Brief Bedside Dysphagia Screening Test for determining penetration/aspiration risk in patients prone to dysphagia. The priority was to achieve high sensitivity and negative predictive value.

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2015

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Ossified Posterior Longitudinal Ligament With Massive Ossification of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Causing Dysphagia in a Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Patient.
 

Author(s): Kazuhiro Murayama, Shinichi Inoue, Toshiya Tachibana, Keishi Maruo, Fumihiro Arizumi, Shotaro Tsuji, Shinichi Yoshiya

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Aug;94(32):e1295.

 

Descriptive case report.To report a case of a diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) patient with both massive ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (OALL) leading to severe dysphagia as well as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) causing ...

Last Updated: 13 Aug 2015

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Analysis of Dysphagia Patterns Using a Modified Barium Swallowing Test Following Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.
 

Author(s): So-Yoon Lee, Bo Hwan Kim, Young Hak Park

Journal: Yonsei Med. J.. 2015 Sep;56(5):1221-6.

 

The purposes of this study were to evaluate specific dysphagia patterns and to identify the factors affecting dysphagia, especially aspiration, following treatment of head and neck cancer.

Last Updated: 10 Aug 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Dysphagia" returned 58 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Fluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia: anatomic, technical, and common etiologic factors.
 

Author(s): Nasir M Jaffer, Edmund Ng, Frederick Wing-Fai Au, Catriona M Steele

Journal: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Jan;204(1):49-58.

 

The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract; review techniques and contrast agents used in the fluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx and hypopharynx; provide a pictorial review of some important causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia; ...

Last Updated: 25 Dec 2014

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Screening tools for dysphagia: a systematic review.
 

Author(s): Camila Lucia Etges, Betina Scheeren, Erissandra Gomes, Lisiane De Rosa Barbosa

Journal: Codas. ;26(5):343-9.

 

To perform a systematic review of screening instruments for dysphagia available in the literature.

Last Updated: 12 Nov 2014

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The role of gastrostomy tube placement in advanced dementia with dysphagia: a critical review.
 

Author(s): Leanne S Goldberg, Kenneth W Altman

Journal:

 

Over 4.5 million people in North America had a diagnosis of dementia in the year 2000, and more than half had advanced disease with potential aspiration risk. There is much controversy regarding the use and timing of enteral feeding support in these patients with dysphagia. The management ...

Last Updated: 24 Oct 2014

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Motor Learning in Dysphagia Rehabilitation
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Dysphagia; Swallowing Disorders; Deglutition Disorders; Stroke

 

Last Updated: 13 Oct 2015

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Dysphagia and Pneumonia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Dysphagia; Pneumonia

 

Last Updated: 31 Oct 2013

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