Parkinson Disease

Common Name(s)

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. The four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. These symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  As they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has Parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well.  Parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing Parkinson disease increases as we age. Although some Parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  Many researchers now believe that Parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

View Details
Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
Logo
National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

View Details
National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

View Details
Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

View Details
Logo
Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

View Details
The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

View Details
The Michael J. Fox Foundation

The Michael J. Fox Foundation is dedicated to finding a cure for Parkinson's disease through an aggressively funded research agenda and to ensuring the development of improved therapies for those living with Parkinson's today.

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

Not finding the support you need? Show General Support Organizations

 
 
Top

How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

http://www.apdaparkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

View Details
Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
Logo
National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

View Details
National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

http://parkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

View Details
Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

http://www.nwpf.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

View Details
Logo
Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

http://www.pdf.org

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

View Details
The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

View Details
The Michael J. Fox Foundation

The Michael J. Fox Foundation is dedicated to finding a cure for Parkinson's disease through an aggressively funded research agenda and to ensuring the development of improved therapies for those living with Parkinson's today.

https://www.michaeljfox.org/

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

Not finding the support you need? Show General Support Organizations

 
 
 
 
Top

General Resources

Online Wellness Center

A website designed to inspire people with Parkinson’s and their loved ones to make positive personal changes that contribute to living their best with a chronic disease.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

Go To URL
Aware in Care

Aware in Care aims to help people with Parkinson’s disease get the best care possible during a hospital stay.

Updated 8 Apr 2014

Go To URL
What You and Your Family Should Know

This book offers a basic overview of Parkinson’s disease. Topics include symptoms, diagnosis, parkinsonism, treatment options, putting your health team together, accepting and adapting to PD, and staying well.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Caring and Coping

Written for care partners of people with Parkinson’s, this book profiles caregiver roles and activities. Topics include what to expect, care options, activities of daily living, legal and financial planning and taking care of yourself as caregiver.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Fitness Counts

Exercise is important at any stage of Parkinson’s. This book describes exercise methods that contribute to stability and includes photos to demonstrate proper form.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
10 Early Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease

This short brochure describes 10 symptoms that may be early signs of Parkinson’s disease. Each symptom of concern is listed along with what is "normal." If you have more than one symptom, you may want to visit your doctor.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Medications

This book describes both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s and provides detailed information on common medications used to treat these symptoms.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Nutrition Matters

This book focuses on optimal nutrition for people with Parkinson’s and explains how PD affects the gastrointestinal system. It also offers tips and recipes to help manage non-motor symptoms and medication side effects.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Fox Trial Finder

Fox Trial Finder was created by the Michael J. Fox Foundation to help increase the flow of willing participants — both people with Parkinson’s and control participants who do not have Parkinson’s — into the clinical trials that need them, acceleratin

Updated 17 Apr 2015

Go To URL
Third Thursday Webinars

On the third Thursday of each month, join our live webinars to learn about various aspects of living with PD and the Foundation's work to speed medical breakthroughs. These webinars are available for CME credit for practicing healthcare professionals

Updated 17 Apr 2015

Go To URL
 
 
Top

Blogs

PDCommunity! Blog

NWPF staff answer your questions, share information and provide helpful links for quick access for all to benefit.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

Go To URL
 
 
Top

Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 657 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial.
 

Author(s): , Karl Kieburtz, Barbara C Tilley, Jordan J Elm, Debra Babcock, Robert Hauser, G Webster Ross, Alicia H Augustine, Erika U Augustine, Michael J Aminoff, Ivan G Bodis-Wollner, James Boyd, Franca Cambi, Kelvin Chou, Chadwick W Christine, Michelle Cines, Nabila Dahodwala, Lorelei Derwent, Richard B Dewey, Katherine Hawthorne, David J Houghton, Cornelia Kamp, Maureen Leehey, Mark F Lew, Grace S Lin Liang, Sheng T Luo, Zoltan Mari, John C Morgan, Sotirios Parashos, Adriana Pérez, Helen Petrovitch, Suja Rajan, Sue Reichwein, Jessie Tatsuno Roth, Jay S Schneider, Kathleen M Shannon, David K Simon, Tanya Simuni, Carlos Singer, Lewis Sudarsky, Caroline M Tanner, Chizoba C Umeh, Karen Williams, Anne-Marie Wills

Journal: JAMA. 2015 Feb;313(6):584-93.

 

There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established ...

Last Updated: 11 Feb 2015

Go To URL
Specificity and sensibility of 9-Itens Wearing-off Questionnaire in Brazilian Parkinson disease patient sample.
 

Author(s): Jasper Guimarães Santos, Hsin Fen Chien, Egberto Reis Barbosa

Journal: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2014 Nov;72(11):867-73.

 

(1) To evaluate whether the Nine Items Questionnaire (WOQ-9) for the detection of wearing-off (WO) in Parkinson Disease (PD), by means of its screening ability, is a helpful tool to assist neurologists in diagnosing WO; (2) To determine the sensitivity and the specificity of a free ...

Last Updated: 21 Nov 2014

Go To URL
Clinical correlations with Lewy body pathology in LRRK2-related Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Lorraine V Kalia, Anthony E Lang, Lili-Naz Hazrati, Shinsuke Fujioka, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Owen A Ross, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, John Q Trojanowski, Howard I Hurtig, Roy N Alcalay, Karen S Marder, Lorraine N Clark, Carles Gaig, Eduardo Tolosa, Javier Ruiz-Martínez, Jose F Marti-Masso, Isidre Ferrer, Adolfo López de Munain, Samuel M Goldman, Birgitt Schüle, J William Langston, Jan O Aasly, Maria T Giordana, Vincenzo Bonifati, Andreas Puschmann, Margherita Canesi, Gianni Pezzoli, Andre Maues De Paula, Kazuko Hasegawa, Charles Duyckaerts, Alexis Brice, A Jon Stoessl, Connie Marras

Journal: JAMA Neurol. 2015 Jan;72(1):100-5.

 

Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases ...

Last Updated: 13 Jan 2015

Go To URL

Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 73 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Dysautonomia in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): David S Goldstein

Journal: Compr Physiol. 2014 Apr;4(2):805-26.

 

Dysautonomias are conditions in which altered function of one or more components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) adversely affects health. This review updates knowledge about dysautonomia in Parkinson disease (PD). Most PD patients have symptoms or signs of dysautonomia; occasionally, ...

Last Updated: 9 Apr 2014

Go To URL
Pathogenesis-targeted, disease-modifying therapies in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Amaal AlDakheel, Lorraine V Kalia, Anthony E Lang

Journal: Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jan;11(1):6-23.

 

Parkinson disease is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Multiple attempts have been made to establish therapies for Parkinson disease which provide neuroprotection or disease modification-two related, but not identical, concepts. However, to date, none of these ...

Last Updated: 23 Jan 2014

Go To URL
Contribution of GTPase activity to LRRK2-associated Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Elpida Tsika, Darren J Moore

Journal: Small GTPases. ;4(3):164-70.

 

Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, PARK8, OMIM 607060) gene represent the most common known cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD) with late-onset and dominant inheritance. LRRK2 protein is composed of multiple domains including two distinct enzymatic domains, ...

Last Updated: 27 Mar 2014

Go To URL
 
 
Top

Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Measure of Microglial Activation in the Brain of Parkinson Disease Patients With PET
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease With LRRK2 Mutation; Healthy Controls; Parkinson's Disease Without LRRK2 Mutation

 

Last Updated: 13 Dec 2014

Go to URL
Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) on the Quality of Life and Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS) of Persons With Parkinson's Disease (PD)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease; Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

 

Last Updated: 20 May 2013

Go to URL
Whole-body Vibration as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Primary Parkinsonism

 

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2015

Go to URL